What's the Difference Between Permanent and Whole Life Insurance


Whole life insurance is a type of permanent insurance, and both of these have terms lasting until the end of the insured’s life, as opposed to term life insurance, which, as the name suggests, only covers the life of the insured for a specified term . Put simply, permanent life insurance always pays out to the beneficiary, because the end of its term is the death of the insured; term life insurance only pays out if the insured dies during the allotted time period. The former is substantially-sometimes tenfold-more expensive than the latter, but term life insurance renewal is often costly, since at the end of the term the insured person is older and therefore represents a higher risk. This is especially true of life insurance for seniors, as one might imagine, since their chances of payout are higher.

Whole life insurance, also known as cash surrender life insurance, is considered a solid investment. Given consistent upkeep, it accumulates value on a tax-deferred basis, just as an education or retirement fund does. With whole life insurance, the insured may use the policy as collateral, borrow against it or even borrow from it-again, just as with a bank account. If the insured borrows from it, say to build a dream retirement home, the end cash payout obviously will be lower for the named beneficiary / ies, unless the borrowed amount is repaid. And, if the insured is unable to continue paying into the policy, then just like a bank account, it might still have a payout to beneficiaries, depending on when the payout is. The insurance company providing whole life insurance also folds its dividends directly into the policy (provided the company is profitable), providing a secondary increase in value over time.

Another type of permanent insurance is variable life insurance. Here, the life insurance policy is more of a stock portfolio than a savings account, and its value varies with the value of the investments chosen to support it. At the end of the insured’s life, the portfolio is paid out to the beneficiary / ies; depending on the risk level of the chosen investments, the benefit may either erode or grow over time.

With universal life insurance, the insured pays a base initial amount, and then makes payments within a range set by the insurance provider. This type of policy is usually less costly, but it is important to understand that the range of minimum and maximum payments may change over time, depending on the health of the provider, its investments or other terms. Therefore, the account requires more attention than other forms of permanent insurance.

Finally, variable universal life (VUL) insurance is another tax-free account in which terms and payments can vary as needed. In it, flexible premiums may be invested in a variety of areas and accounts, coverage may be increased or decreased, and investments may be transferred between accounts without tax ramifications. Because the policyholder retains more of the risk than the insurance provider, VUL policies often have less costly upkeep fees than many other types of policies. On the other hand, it is also a combination of all of the flexibility possible within the permanent life insurance category.

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A Survey on Intrusion Detection Systems in Manets


A survey on Intrusion Detection Systems in MANETs

 Shahid Shehzad Bajwa

 Pakistan Air Force-Karachi Institute of Economics and Technology

 shahidshehzad_321@hotmail.com

Abstract

 Ensuring security in Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) is very crucial. In recent years a surge of research and expansion for Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) has demonstrated its great potential for establishing communication over a large number of application scenarios.  Adhoc Network security is different from traditional network security. In this paper we have surveyed the use of Intrusion Detection System in the Adhoc Networks and analyzed their fruitfulness.

Introduction
An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a defense system, which detects malicious activities in a network. One feature of intrusion detection systems is their ability to detect or provide a view of malicious activities and issues by notifying or block a assumed connection. IDS tools are capable of distinguishing between attacks coming from own employees or customers and attacks posed by hackers. An intrusion Detection Systems has its core element a sensor (an analysis engine) that is responsible for detecting intrusions. It has decision making mechanisms is called sensor that receive raw data from knowledge base, system log and audit trail sources. The role of sensor is to filter information and discard any irrelevant data obtained from the event set associated with the protected system. Intrusion detection systems can be arranged as centralized or distributed. A distributed IDS consists of multiple Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) over a large network, which communicate with each other. This survey report discusses the security issues at cluster based security management. In node level security management each node is responsible for securing itself. MANET routing protocols can be divided into proactive and imprudent categories. Both proactive and reactive protocols can suffer from control packet floods caused by malicious nodes.

 What is MANET and how MANETs are different from other networks?

Mobile Ah-hoc Networks (MANETs) are networks that are made of mobile and power controlled nodes infrastructure less self organizing, all the nodes share the same functions with respect to the network operation, (i.e. there is no node that is in charge for authentication or security services). It is vulnerable to security attacks due to its features of open medium, dynamic changing topology, cooperative algorithms, lack of centralized monitoring, management point, and lack of a clear line of defense. 

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) is slightly more delicate. It exploits the nodes redundancy of nodes and the self-organizing network prototype to overcome some problems that are inherent to wireless networks (tradeoff between distance and transfer rates) or to networks in general (congestion, configuration and installation costs). Applying the above definition of WMN, you may find that both MANETs and WMN are „self-organizing“, but you could also argue that MANETs can be seen as a subset of WMN. The most interesting application of WMN, tough is probably the use of wireless nodes (either mobile or fixed) to convey traffic from mobile users that have a wireless device to the wired internet. 

 A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively scrutinize physical or environmental circumstances, such as high temperature, echo, shuddering, pressure, motion or pollutants, at different locations.  They were originally motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance. However, wireless sensor networks are now used in many civilian application areas, including environment and locale monitoring, healthcare applications, home computerization, and traffic management.

 MANETs Security Approaches

 There are mainly two approaches to securing a MANET: proactive and reactive. The proactive approach attempts to prevent security threats in the first place, typically through various cryptographic techniques. The reactive approach seeks to detect threats a posteriori and react accordingly. Both approaches have own merits and is suitable for addressing different issues in MANET. For example, most secure routing protocols adopt the proactive approach in order to secure routing messages exchanged between mobile nodes, while the reactive approach is widely used to protect packet forwarding operations. Due to the absence of a clear line of defense, a complete security solution for MANETs should integrate both proactive and reactive approaches, and encompass all three components: prevention, detection, and reaction. The prevention component deters the attacker by significantly increasing the difficulty of penetrating the system. Ad hoc wireless internet extends the service of the internet to the end users over an ad hoc wireless network; some of the applications of the ad hoc internet ate wireless mesh networks. 

In Sensor networks security manage by a centralized control called base stations. A base station is typically a gateway to another network, a powerful data processing or storage center, or an access point for human interface. They can be used as a nexus to disseminate control information into the network or extract data from it. The sensor nodes establish a routing forest, with a base station at the root of every tree. Base stations are many orders of magnitude more powerful than sensor nodes. Typically, base stations have enough battery power to surpass the lifetime of all sensor nodes, sufficient memory to store cryptographic keys, stronger processors, and means for communicating with outside networks. 

No matter how carefully the prevention mechanisms are designed a completely intrusion-free system is infeasible. In MANETs, detecting and reacting components that discover the irregular intrusions and take reactions to avoid persistent adverse effects are indispensable for the security solutions are called Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). They explore issues associated with deviations from normal system or user behavior which are concerned with the detection of hostile actions. 

Classification of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS)

 To classify the intrusion detection systems there is a family of tools that use information derived from a single host based IDS (HIDS) and those IDSs that exploit information obtained from a whole segment of a local network  (network based IDS). The HIDS reside on a particular computer and provide protection for a specific system. They are not only equipped with system monitoring facilities but also include other modules of a typical IDS. Two primary types of HIDS can be distinguished: 

a.    Real Secure Agent, and Port Sentry System monitors incoming connection attempts. These examine host-based incoming and outgoing network connections. These are particularly related to the unauthorized connection attempts to TCP or UDP ports and can also detect incoming port scans.

b.    Systems which examine network traffic (packets) that attempts to access the host. These systems protect the host by intercepting suspicious packets and looking for aberrant payloads. 

c.    Login Activity Monitoring Systems monitors the networking layer of their protected host (Host Sentry). Their role is to monitor log-in and log-out attempts, looking for unusual activity on a system occurring at unexpected times, particular network locations or detecting multiple login attempts. The network-based type of IDS (NIDS) produces data about local network usage. The NIDS reassemble and analyze all network packets that reach the network interface card operating in promiscuous mode.

 Role of Intrusion Detection Systems in MANET Security

 In Mobile ad hoc network security attacks on routing information [1], exhausting nodes resources, maliciously manipulating data traffic is caused by lack of network infrastructure. AIS (Artificial Immune System) architecture protects and reacts against known and unknown dys-functions and attacks in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network. It is designed as two systems, primary IDS and secondary IDS. These components communicate across the network. The primary IDS are centralized and responsible the packager component was originally missing from selection. In order to adapt to new attacks, a process through which components of successful detectors are recombined using the evolutionary process to make new detectors. The secondary IDS are distributed and are responsible for data gathering, data reduction, detection, and response. It also forwards successful detections to the primary IDS. The architecture of AISANIDS contains two major components.  The secondary IDS consist of four components, the sensors, the packager, the detector, and the response. The primary IDS consist of only an analysis component. The sensors collect audit information and convert it to a common event format. The packager performs data reduction by grouping the events into sessions. The analysis component uses these sessions to create detectors. The detector component matches current sessions to its detectors. Finally, the response component automatically responds to attacks. Ideally, once the secondary IDS had a set of detectors, it could continue to function even if the primary IDS failed. Further recommend combining both detection methods to maximize the effectiveness of IDS. 

Real time intrusion in service oriented and user centric intrusion detection system [2] decreases ubiquitous computing for the user short term and long term behavior. SUIDS (Service-oriented and User-centric Intrusion Detection System) with Chi-Square Statistic Test increases ubiquitous computing for the user short term and long term behavior. In this way, the observation reflects the ‘most recent past‘ characteristics of variables in an online fashion. Along with a chi-square statistic test, SUIDS (Service-oriented and User-centric Intrusion Detection System) can measure not only the mean and variance of variables, but also their probability attributions and occurrence patterns. It handles the heterogeneity issue of pervasive network by classifying network nodes into three major categories (head nodes, service nodes, and user nodes) and integrating intrusion detection with service specific knowledge. Security-related factors and subtle scenarios will be considered and tested regarding the system detection effectiveness. A resource-efficient detection algorithm will be investigated to further improve the performance of SUIDS. 

Poor connectivity and limited bandwidth makes network vulnerable to security attacks at node level communication in mobile ad hoc networks.  Mobile Agent Based Intrusion Detection System (MABIDS) [3] runs on each node intrusion detection  system  locally  and  equally  cooperates  with other intrusion detection systems  running  on  other nodes.  It derived from a MANET requirement analysis. The  mobility  and  autonomy  associated with  MAs  to  provide  an  efficient  and  flexible  solution  to  poor  connectivity  and  limited  bandwidth  in  MANET  context. In architecture of intrusion  detection  is  based  on  collection  and analysis  of  system  and  network  audit  data.  Upon detection, intrusions report to security management. Architecture  of  MABIDS contains the System  Administrator (SA) is in charge of harmonizing all the  activities among the modules,  such  as  Sensor   management (SM), Event Manager  (EM),  Response  Agent (RA), IDS Agents Framework, and PMADE. The sensor management is composed of Data classifier and Data formatting.  Data  classifier  collects  raw  data  from  system  audit  and  local  route.  The data that comes out of the Data classifier divided into three groups:  system-level data, user-level data and packet- level data.  Data  formatting  processes  the  group-data  with  the  data  formats  rules  of  local  IDS  and  outputs  event  data. Communication overhead can more reduce by dividing load into the IDS cluster nodes. 

Lack of central authority in self organized mobile ad hoc network increases security threats.  Self-organizing mechanism [4] manages security on node-level decreases security threats from mobile ad hoc networks attackers.  It based on the assumptions where individual nodes are themselves responsible for their own security level. Self-organized mobile ad hoc network a node that is responsible for its own security should carry out. The management of security becomes easier if suitable metrics can be developed to offer evidence of the security level or performance of the network. Intrusion detection and prevention (IDS/IPS) techniques can be applied for this purpose. A security monitoring system continuously estimating the actual security level can be attached to the individual nodes of a self-organized mobile ad hoc network. Exploring component metric area and identify dependencies between them.

Due to lack of network central infrastructure and central authority for authentication malicious node attacks for authentication and authorization. It protects and reacts against known and unknown dys-functions or attacks in a mobile ad hoc networks [5]. It was designed as two systems, primary IDS and secondary IDS. These components communicate across the network. The primary IDS is centralized the packager components was originally missing from selection. The secondary IDS is responsible for data gathering, data reduction, detection and response. It also forward successful detection to primary IDS.  The immune based system may miss some obvious attacks and raise alters when exposed to rare but permissible activities. 

Security attacks to gain unauthorized accesses and misuse of critical data are catastrophic for Mobile ad hoc networks. Hybrid intrusion detection and visualization method [6] secure the network from attackers to gain unauthorized accesses and misuse of critical data. Intelligent hybrid intrusion detection and visualization system introduces a two-stage intrusion detection technique. Host system calls are monitored as audit data source. Current research is conducted on a standalone host only. The first stage is the misuse detection stage that employs the signature-based detection method. A database of known detection behaviors has been developed and updated over the time. The system compares system audit data with intrusion behavior database in real time. If any intrusion is detected, the autonomous agents will start to intervene and take precautions according to the event handling mechanisms. After the signature detection stage, a graph of system call information should be generated. The second stage is the anomaly detection stage. This stage can overcome the shortcoming of the first stage and is able to detect novel attacks. It can provide additional detection such as misuse of confidential data by internal users. An anomaly-based IDS achieves this by identifying program behaviors that deviate from the known normal behavior. It monitors a program by observing event traces and comparing those traces to some expected behavior. Visualization system needs to give security officers an intuitive representation of such information as normal range of system calls. 

Due to limitations of detecting misuse and anomaly attacks in MANET makes network vulnerable from attackers. Hybrid system combines the misuse detection and anomaly detection components for applying random forests algorithm in MANET [7]. In proposed technique there are two different methods for intrusion detection misuse detection and anomaly detection. In misuse detection determines intrusions by patterns or signatures which can represent attacks. Misuse based systems can detect known attacks like virus detection systems, but they cannot detect unknown attacks. Misuse detection usually has higher detection rate and lower false positive rate than anomaly detection.  Anomaly detection technique identifies the observed activities that deviate significantly from the normal usage as intrusions.  Anomaly detection can detect unknown intrusions, which cannot be addressed by misuse detection. Finally the proposed algorithm achieves high detection rate with low false positive rate, and can detect novel intrusions. However, some intrusions that are very similar with each other cannot be detected by the anomaly detection. Due to the limitations of proposed algorithm another clustering algorithm could be investigated in the future. 

Wormhole attacks break security boundaries for detecting information in wireless ad hoc networks. A model novel end-to-end wormhole Detection system [8] detects intrusion attacks on wireless ad-hoc networks because of its features of lack of centralized administration, limited resources, dynamically changed network topology, and wireless communication. Message bombing, black-hole attack, and wormhole attack, rushing attack are from major attacks in wireless ad hoc networks. Among wireless ad hoc network intrusion detection techniques have been studied. They can be classified into three categories: signature based intrusion detection , anomaly based intrusion detection, and specification based intrusion detection. Proposed method, called end method, in detecting wormhole attack. A wormhole is a dedicated connection between two endpoints which are normally multi-hops away. The adversary either connects the two endpoints by a wired link or installs two radio transceivers at the two locations. Then the attacker sends and re-transmits every packet received at one end of the wormhole at the other end. In this way, the wormhole disrupts the network routing by generating shorter routes in the network.  Further improvements on same work are ongoing. 

Security attacks based on the model learned only from normal network behaviors without the requirements of pre-labeled attack data generates congestion in Mobile ad hoc networks. An agent-based cooperative anomaly detection scheme [9] prevent from security attacks based on the model learned only from normal network behaviors without the requirements of pre-labeled attack data.  The anomaly detection is performed in a cooperative way involving the participation of multiple mobile nodes. Unlike traditional signature-based misuse detection approaches, the proposed scheme detects various types of intrusions/attacks based on the model learned only from normal network behaviors. Without the requirements of pre-labeled attack data, the approach eliminates the time-consuming labeling process and the impacts of imbalanced dataset. The proposed agent-based cooperative anomaly detection approach builds on cluster-type architecture. It is energy efficient by implementing the function of intrusion detection in a cooperative fashion for each cluster. 

Malicious intruders infiltrating poison the collaborative detectors with false alarms, disrupting the intrusion detection functionality and placing the whole system at risk increases security attacks on mobile ad hoc networks. A P2P-based overlay detection method [10] detects malicious intruders infiltrating poison the collaborative detectors with false alarms, disrupting the intrusion detection functionality and placing the whole system at risk increases security attacks on mobile ad hoc networks. The traditional intrusion detection systems (IDS) are limited and inferior in comparison to the attackers‘ capabilities. Typically, traditional IDSs work in isolation, only seeing relatively small subsections of the Internet, and thus they are unable of deriving significant trends in the whole network. This is especially true for new and emerging attacks, where being able to observe a large amount of deviant behavior would increase the detection and protection capabilities. Efficiency and scalability are some of the critical issues that like to address in our future work. Needs plan to adopt efficient communication models and experiment with different message filtering and peer grouping strategies. 

Security attacks on certification services to gain authentication causes the congestion in MNET. Secure and effective distributed certification service method using the Secret Sharing scheme and the Threshold Digital Signature scheme [11] secures certification services in the MANET. It is an effective authentication scheme to solve the problem that the whole network security would be damaged by the intrusion of one node and to reduce the risk of the exposure of the private keys. Using cryptographic schemes, such as digital signatures to protect routing information and data traffic, usually requires a key management service. A common way for doing this is adopting a public key infrastructure, which in turn requires a trusted entity, Certification Authority (CA), to the network of key management. Establishing a key management service with a single CA is problematic in MANET. If this single CA is unavailable, nodes cannot receive the current public keys of the other nodes, which mean it cannot establish a secure connection. Furthermore, if the CA is compromised and leaks its private key to an adversary, the adversary can then sign any erroneous certificate using this private key to impersonate any node or revoke any certificate. Certification scheme is based on Polynomial secret sharing and Threshold digital signature. Each mobile node forming MANET has its own identifier such as the MAC address. For further improvement the delay time related to renewing the certificate must be reduced. 

Security attacks decreases highly available communication processes during detecting faults and intrusion in mobile ad hoc networks. LITON (Lightweight Intrusion-Tolerant Overlay Network) architecture [12] aims at providing highly available communication in spite of faults and intrusions in the mobile ad hoc network. It is the first overlay network that is able to tolerate intrusions that shows how routing schemes originally developed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can be used in overlay networks, and introducing a smart route caching strategy that allows for quick recovery when faults are detected. In LITON Lightweight Intrusion-Tolerant Overlay Network every overlay node is an Internet host residing in an autonomous system (AS). Autonomous systems may be connected via public or private (not globally advertised) links. Overlay node placement is arbitrary; however, since LITON is explicitly designed to overcome limitations of Internet inter-domain routing, spreading nodes across different ASs may significantly improve network availability. 

Conclusion 

No doubt that the IDS are here to stay, although future systems will undoubtedly take a different form than our modern day versions. The mathematical and AI (artificial intelligence) concepts required for success are already being developed, tested and improved upon. In this survey paper we have discussed various Intrusion-Detection-Systems for mobile ad hoc networks based on different protocols to detect the intruders and resolve the security attacks. Many intrusion detection systems are under implementation processes and it is also possible that IDS will merge the independent network components and tools which exist today, into a complete and cooperative system, committed to keeping networks stable.

Future Work

 Black hole attacks will be investigated and new model for grouped Black hole attacks will be proposed soon. Black hole attacks gain the information from non-updated routing tables and represent them self as shortest path. After receiving data packets they drop it.

References

 [1]. A. Karygiannis, E. Antonakakis, A. Apostolopoulos, „Detecting Critical Nodes for MANET Intrusion Detection Systems,“ Second International Workshop on Security, Privacy and Trust in Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (SecPerU’06), pp. 7-15, June 2006. 

 [2]. Bo Zhou, Qi Shi, Madjid Merabti, „Intrusion Detection in Pervasive Networks Based on a Chi-Square Statistic Test,“ 30th Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC’06), pp. 203-208, September 2006. 

[3]. Upinder Kaur, R.B. Patel, „Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks: A Mobile Agent Approach,“ 9th International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT’06, pp. 77-80, December 2006. 

[4]. Reijo Savola, Ilkka Uusitalo, „Towards Node-Level Security Management in Self-Organizing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,“ Advanced International Conference on Telecommunications and International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services (AICT-ICIW’06), pp. 36, February 2006. 

[5]. Hongxia Xie, Zhengyun Hui, „An Intrusion Detection Architecture for Ad Hoc Network Based on Artificial Immune System,“ Seventh International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies (PDCAT’06), pp. 1-4, December 2006. 

[6]. Jiong Zhang, Mohammad Zulkernine, “ A Hybrid Network Intrusion Detection Technique Using Random Forests,“ First International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES’06), pp. 262-269, April 2006. 

[7] Jiong Zhang and Mohammad Zulkernine „A Hybrid Network Intrusion Detection Technique Using Random Forests,“ Approach,“ International Conference on Information Technology December 2006. 

[8]. Xia Wang, „Intrusion Detection Techniques in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,“ 30th Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference, pp. 347-349 (COMPSAC’06), September 2006.

[9]. Hongmei Deng, Roger Xu, Jason Li, Frank Zhang, Renato Levy, Wenke Lee, “ Agent-Based Cooperative Anomaly Detection for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,“ 12th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems – Volume 1 (ICPADS’06),  pp. 613-620, July 2006.

[10]. Claudiu Duma, Martin Karresand, Nahid Shahmehri, Germano Caronni, „A Trust-Aware, P2P-Based Overlay for Intrusion Detection, „17th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA’06),   pp. 692-697, September 2006. 

[11]. Kiho Shin, Yoonho Kim, Yanggon Kim, “ An Effective Authentication Scheme in Mobile Ad Hoc Network,“ Seventh ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD’06),  pp. 249-252, June 2006. 

[12]. Rafael R. Obelheiro, Joni da Silva Fraga, „A Lightweight Intrusion-Tolerant Overlay Network,“ Ninth IEEE International Symposium on Object and Component-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC’06), pp. 496-503, April 2006.

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Handling and Storing Your Bullion Coin


Bullion coins are some of the most beautiful objects to collect. Since all bullion coins are minted from precious metals that are easily susceptible to tarnish or markings from mishandling or exposure to the environment, proper storing and handling of bullion coins are important to preserve their beauty and collectible (some say resale) value. We can even went as far as to surmise that collecting bullion coins requires skills, knowledge and investment far more advanced than normal coin collecting as proper know how in acquisition, storage method and handling  is essential to preserve the value of your coin portfolio. Because bullion coins are generally high priced, a single tarnish, scratch mark or even thumb print could devalue the coin very substantially, in the case of Proofs or Brilliant Uncirculated(BU) coins, to less than half of its original value.

The first and foremost rule in handling bullion coins is to handle them as less often as possible, better yet, never at all. Gold bullion coins can easily show dent marks or scratch even from the slightest „accidents“ as gold are very soft and malleable metal, this is more prevalent with coins that have exceptionally high purity like the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf (.9999 fineness). Silver on the other hand is notorious for being easily tarnished when exposed to even minute amounts of moisture in air or even human skin. Therefore if you must handle your coin, there is a few guidelines that should be taken into consideration:

1. Hold your coin by its edges, never touch the surface of the coin with your bare fingers as the acidity of human skin would result in color change or wear marks that would tarnish the surface of the coin. Preferably, wear a soft cotton glove when handling bullion coins.

2. Be very careful not to drop, bump or rub your coin against hard surfaces as this might easily result in dents or scratch marks, place foam or soft pads on the table when you are examining the coin to prevent the coin from scratches, ensure that the environment that the coin comes into contact with is dry, clean and free of contaminants.

3. Never breath onto the coin surface, the moisture from human breaths can cause discoloration which would be hard to remove if ever possible at all.

There are many solution offered in the market in storing and displaying your coin collection, in fact nowadays many fresh-out-of-the-mint bullion coins comes in plastic containers that does an excellent job in protecting your investment.

1. For display and short term storage purposes for lower value coins,  coin albums and flips provide adequate protection and effective display for large selection of coin, however since albums and flips are not fully air tight, the coins might suffer discoloration from air moisture and contaminant after long periods of time. Therefore this method cannot be applied for the more valuable coins of your collection. One should also take note that the coin albums and flips should not be made of PVC as PVC decompose when reacting the heat and light , the resulting chemical reaction releases hydrochloric acid which will slowly render your coins worthless!!!

2. The most common and economical solution is to use 2×2 cardboard containers lined with Mylar plastics, the coin can be placed on the Mylar and the container can be fold over to enclose the coin and snapped shut. This provide a high level of protection at an affordable price for the majority of your coin collection.

3. For the most valuable coins in your collection, a coin slab provides maximum protection against the elements albeit at a steeper investment, they are made from hermetically sealed hard plastic holders in which individual coins are encased.

Practicing proper care in handling and storing bullion coins is very similar to learning how to protect your financial investment, which in the long run can insure you against disappointment and protection from serious financial losses due to deterioration of your coin collection, therefore making your coin collecting experience much more rewarding.

Visit our website and online store at http://www.buybullions.co.uk for more information.

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The Importance of Learning Spanish Grammar


It is important to learn proper Spanish grammar when you learn to speak and write the language. However, knowing grammar by itself will not make you a fluent speaker. Most courses in the language integrate the grammar with other aspects, such as the vocabulary and the proper pronunciation. One of the things you will realize about the grammar is that all nouns have a definite or indefinite article in front of them. In English you would simply say girl or boy. This is not so in Spanish. Girl is a chica?and boy is l chico? You cannot just say hica?or hico? All nouns are either masculine or feminine and there is no neuter gender as there is in English.

Just as there are rules for making nouns plural in English, there are also rules of grammar for this in Spanish. These are:

– If a noun ends in a vowel, add ?to make it plural. You must also make the definite or indefinite article plural as well. El becomes los and la becomes les.

– If a noun ends in a consonant, adds?to make the word plural.

– If a noun ends in on, you adds?but you drop the accent mark on the letter ?

– If a noun ends with the letter ? you change the ?to ?and adds?

There are only three categories of verbs in Spanish ?those ending in and To conjugate a verb from its infinitive form, you still use the same pronouns as you do in English. There are rules for conjugating each category of verb according to the subject pronoun, which are important for you to learn. While all verbs end in ?when you want to use the pronoun ? they differ when you use the singular form of ou? which is sted?in Spanish. In order to conjugate the verbs with this pronoun, the rule is to add ?when you are using an ?verb and to use ?when you use an or verb.

Adjectives follow the noun they describe, rather than the English placement of in front of the noun. The form of the adjectives also changes depending on whether the word being described is masculine or feminine and whether it is singular or plural. Most adjectives end with the letter ?and have four forms ?masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular and feminine plural. There are adjectives that do end in ?and to make them plural you add the letter ? If the adjective ends with a consonant, you adds?to form the plural.

These are just the basics of what is involved in learning grammar when you learn Spanish. Because of the gender it is important to know how to speak and write the language properly so that you won inadvertently insult the person to whom you are speaking or writing. When you are taking a course, your instructor will gladly assist you in knowing when and where to use the words properly.

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Spying Cell Phones and IMEI Codes: The End Of Privacy – Protect Yourself


If someone has access to your cell phone and IMEI code, for just a few minutes, your life can become an open book! Some spy software is so sophisticated that it records conversations in the vicinity of the phone, even when you are not using it. Text messages that have been erased are easy to get at with inexpensive spy technology. Read on to learn a way to protect yourself from this invasion of privacy and what you should do if you think you are being spied on through your cell phone.

To protect yourself you must understand the basics of this technology and how it works. The spy needs two things: the IMEI code for your phone and software to connect with that code. IMEI stands for International Mobile Equipment Identity and is a number unique to each mobile device. It is found in the battery compartment of each phone and is 15 digits long. There are three places the spy can get the IMEI number:

  1. – From the phone contract. It was on my iPhone 4 contract.
  2. – From the battery case. It was in my iPhone 4 battery compartment.
  3. – By simply dialing #06# on the phone. This worked on my iPhone 4.

Spy cell phone software is inexpensive and available on hundreds of Internet sites. It is easy to install and can be downloaded directly from the Internet to your phone in seconds. The combination of software installed on your phone and the IMEI number make you a sitting duck for any kind of surveillance activity. The spy can now monitor your activities from a home computer or a smart phone. If you have something to hide – beware!

Is the use of this software legal? Yes, if you own the phone. Websites selling these products always have a disclaimer stating that they will not be responsible for illegal uses of the phone while at the same time promoting the software activities that do not appear to be legal. Because the software is undetectable spies are unlikely to be prosecuted.

If you suspect someone may be spying on your cell phone activities, you need to take your phone to your provider and have them clear the memory and restore it to the factory settings. Then guard your phone like it is a credit card that can be used without a password. In other words – don’t share it, even for a minute, with anyone you don’t know and trust.

There are many legitimate uses for the IMEI number and for the spying software and it is unlikely that either will go away. The IMEI number functions like a serial number making it easy to register and ban the resale of stolen phones. Spy software can add provide some security to children and teens while allowing more freedom. Spy software can also be used to find stolen and lost cell phones. As a concerned parent, and a person who sometimes loses his phone, I decided to install spy software on all the family phones.

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Nexus S first impressions


DesignThe Nexus S’s candy-bar design is fairly standard–it resembles many of its Galaxy S siblings–but it shows a few unique elements and it’s worlds apart from the Nexus One. It’s larger and lighter than its ancestor, and it sports an all-black plastic skin with a very faint design on the rear face. We admit, we’re a bit divided LCD Monitor on the appearance. It’s shiny and pretty, but the Nexus S feels too fragile in the hand. Remember that the Nexus One had some metal parts, which gave it a sturdy feel. We’re not saying the Nexus S feels cheap, but we’d be wary of dropping it on a hard surface. Also, the plastic surface and the display attract fingerprints like crazy.Below the display sit the four Android touch controls (menu, search, back, and home).

Unlike with the Nexus One, you don’t get a navigation trackball; we missed that trackball just a bit. Fortunately, the camera on the rear side is almost flush with the back of the phone–other Android handsets have a protruding lens–and it sits next to the bright flash. The second camera lens is on the front side just above the bright display. Other exterior features consist of a thin volume rocker on the left spine and a power control on the right spine. The 3.5mm headset jack and Micro-USB port sit on the phone’s bottom end. Though it’s not a huge deal, we’d prefer those ports to be up top.Samsung is highlighting the Nexus S‘ „contour“ design in its promotional materials. To you that means that the front of the device, display included, is slightly concave. The idea is to make it more comfortable to hold the phone against the side of your head. We’re not so impressed, though.

The curve is so slight that we didn’t notice any difference. We may feel differently after days of use, but the curve seems like a gimmick so far.InterfaceLike its predecessor, the Nexus S offers a straight Google experience uncluttered LCD Monitors by a manufacturer’s custom interface or a set of carrier-installed apps. Make no mistake that this is a phone for users who want the Android OS served up straight and simple. Indeed, we’ve always been fans of „letting Android be Android,“ so we’re not going to fault Sammy and Google for going this route. Even with Gingerbread, seasoned Android users will find few new elements. The Super AMOLED display is a little sharper than on the Nexus One, though not too dissimilar from the Galaxy S series. A few of the onscreen icons look different, but the main menu has the „crawl“ design where icons disappear into the background.

Five home screens are available for customization.GingerbreadWe’re still exploring the full details of the new OS, though we did try the new copy and paste. When using a long press to select words in paragraph, you’re now given an option to select just the word you’re touching rather than the whole block of text. Then, you’ll see new arrows for grabbing just the words you want. It may sound like a small change, but it makes a huge improvement in usability. The virtual keyboard also has some small-but-welcome tweaks.FeaturesWe’ll need time to check out the phone’s features, but we can offer a list of the Nexus S‘ offerings as a refresher. When taken as a whole, you’ll see many of the features available in the Nexus One, though the Nexus S adds a near field communications (NFC) chip, the aforementioned Touch Screen second camera, a gyroscope for gaming, and a 1Ghz Hummingbird processor (the Nexus One had a 1Ghz Snapdragon processor). That’s not a bad lot, but we were hoping for more from such a showcase device. And we’re not happy about the lack of a microSD card slot, HDMI output, and support for T-Mobile’s HSPA+ network.

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Learn All About Self Esteem


Self esteem is something that every person should have and the loss of it in a person spell disaster. Just like anything that a person has to have, a person should work at building his or her self esteem. Before one can do that, there is a need to know things about self esteem. Self esteem is how a person perceives his or herself. There are various factors that a person should have a positive attitude about including the value he or she gives to him or herself as a human being, his or her career and his or her achievements in order to develop a high self esteem.

That is only for starters, one has to go deeper an see a positive meaning to one’s place in the world and as well as one’s purpose in life. In looking at the future, there should be optimism while evaluating one’s potential to be successful by working on one’s weaknesses and highlighting the strengths. Last but certainly not the least a person has to have independence or the capacity to stand on his or her own to feet because being independent is one good way to start building a high self esteem.

Knowing all these things will help a great deal but there might also be other factors that you want to add but this is a really good start already. You might get from the very long first paragraph that building high self esteem is all about the individual and that is true because your self worth is obviously based on how the individual sees his or himself.

However the people surrounding a person also has an impact on the self esteem of the individual concerned especially the people with whom the person has a close relationship with. This is the reason why there are a lot of cases of damaged self esteems that are somehow related to emotional and physical battery as well as milder cases of heartbreaks for the teenagers.

Getting back on your feet has a lot to do with getting that self esteem back after a shattering experience. It does not matter if you work on building it slowly so long as you are focused at getting your high self esteem back to where it belongs.

The importance of high self esteem is one thing that we cannot ignore because it is very crucial as a cornerstone to a happy living. Having a high level of this aspect of yourself will make you highly motivated to work at achieving your goals will give you the right attitude to be successful in whatever endeavor one chooses to take.

In fact in a CNN interview with Robert Wagner by the legend Larry King, he was quoted as saying that „I would tell them the most important thing is to work on your self esteem, that is the best advice I can give.“ Take it from someone who knows what he is talking about and to one who walked the talk. So for those who have low self esteem, look within yourselves and discover that there is so much about you that you can be proud of.

For those who are lucky enough to already be working on building high self esteem, keep up with your good work and hopefully nothing will ever crush you should something very challenging come your way.

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How Do I Remove Malware – 2 Simple Ways of Getting Rid of Malware


One question that a lot of people have is what is malware and if infected, how do I remove malware?

Basically, malware stands for malicious software and consists of numerous kinds of dangerous computer infections like virus, worm, Trojan, adware and spyware. Before you go about removing it, there are certain facts about malware that you must know.

* Most computer owners are unaware of the presence of malware on their PC.

* Malware is extremely harmful as it can steal your personal information like passwords, bank account numbers, social security and credit card numbers.

* Other bad effects of malware include slower system performance, change in original settings, infected registry, fake popups and permanent damage of hard disk files.

Now that you are wondering „how do I remove malware,“ there are essentially two methods of getting rid of malware, including:

1. Find the malware program, processes and files and use the „Add/Remove“ feature to uninstall them.

2. Get an anti spyware tool to remove the malware from your PC.

The first method has to be done manually. If you are not comfortable with the technical part of the process, you should not try to remove malware yourself. This may disrupt the present settings of your PC or even ruin it further. Moreover, malware can mask itself and take different forms. These can only be recognized by experts who can use the manual way to eliminate malware.

A better and easier way to remove malware is to acquire a program that detects and demolishes malware. To find such a software, go online and type ‚how do I remove malware‘ in a search engine. Your search results will show spyware removal tolls that can delete all malware from your computer and keep it clean for a long time to come.

Buying a good spyware remover is the best, easiest and fastest way to get rid of malware and prevent future infections. Don’t waste your time with free versions because these will just bring new malware to your PC.

Invest some money in a reliable spyware removal tool to get effective results. It will also allow you to do unlimited daily scans for Malware, Spyware, Adware, dialers, cookies and keyloggers. Any potential threats will be blocked and the ones present on your system will be deleted within minutes.

The next time you ask yourself ‚how do I remove malware‘, just install a robust spyware remover and leave the rest to it. Its as simple as ABC!

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Sat Nav Devices: Your Best Bet for Finding Unknown Locations


The capability of the portable sat nav devices to sniff out obscure locations has made them the hottest selling gadgets – particularly among frequent travelers and globe trotters. Road users have been more than happy with all the innovative features of many such devices, which they can use to their advantage in finding their way across different areas. They can accessorize their cars and bikes with these gadgets, a fact that is making these devices all the more useful.

The users of these devices can stay focused on the road and have some of their co-passengers take over the navigation. Satellite Navigation Systems work by retrieving exact locations and the necessary traffic information from orbiting satellites and feeding the data to in-built LCD screens. The calculated location is then presented on a detailed map so that the users can track their movement en-route to their desired destinations. Most sat nav devices come with a user selectable voice, which tells the driver when to take a turn or warns them of any known problems such as a speed camera.

In a recent survey of company car drivers covering over one million miles in the UK, it was found that drivers with a GPS safety device fitted to their vehicle were 50% less prone to have an accident and 74% less likely to have a speeding endorsement. The latest sat nav models come laden with extra performance packed features such as speed-trap locators and the ability to navigate by photos on maps. With such devices, you would no more need the bells and whistles. One fact you should keep in mind is that the camera locations can change. To keep pace with the change, you’ll need to buy updates to assist you in avoiding any unwelcome points on your license.

There’s a great range of sat nav devices in the market as of now, and the users are not limited in the choices that they can make. Competition in the auto accessory sector is fierce, which means low prices and bewildering choices. No matter how modest or swish your tastes, there is a well-priced model to suit your budget.

Adding a sat nav is the safest way of instantly upgrading your car and making journeys go more smoothly and economically. In fact, you should plan your long trips better and cut down on unnecessary ‚lost‘ mileage which invariable happens when using a paper map. In addition, many of these devices are integrated with MP3 players that can make the trip, voyage or journey quite unforgettable.

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Globalization and its impact on international trade


  Abstract

This essay is based on the book: „The Next Global Stage: The challenges and opportunities in our borderless world“, by Kenichi Ohmae. The theme chosen from this book is:“ globalization and its impact on international trade“. The essay discusses globalization and the extent to which the global economy has the potential not only to constrain but also to enable governments to pursue their policy objectives (Weis, 2009). This essay posits that if one wishes to account for impacts of globalization in any particular national setting, then one must start with the domestic institutions of governance, which mediate the challenges of openness

 Keywords: globalization, the Next Global Stage, challenges and opportunities borderless world, challenges and opportunities

Introduction

 This essay is based on the book: „The Next Global Stage: The challenges and opportunities in our borderless world“, by Kenichi Ohmae. Ohmae explains why economic theories of the past no longer work in today’s global economy. He provides a blue print for today’s business to succeed in this global economy. He reinvents the map by defining region states and the blue print for them to succeed as well. One major question he tries to address is about the global economy. What is globalization? What makes our economy a global one? Ohmae states that even though our borders are diminishing, most nation states still want to continue to have power on the movement of people and goods for security reasons. But in the business world, there are areas that have   proven   they   can   exist   without   many   constraints.   These   areas   are   in communication, capital corporations and consumers(Ohmae, 2005). In addition to being borderless, our economy has become more visible, cyber-connected and measured in multiples or expectation of success.

He argues that we must abandon our economic theories of yesterday. While they helped us to make sense of our economies in the past, and assisted us with devising appropriate legislature, the theories no longer work for the following reasons. The flow of money as described by Keynesian economics becomes complicated if two countries start   trading  a   multitude  of   different  products  and   services,  or   if   they  start communication with ultrafast computers.

The theme chosen from this book: „The Next Global Stage: The challenges and opportunities in our borderless world“, is globalization and its impact on international trade. The essay discusses globalization and the extent to which the global economy has the potential not only to constrain but also to enable governments to pursue their policy objectives (Weiss, 2003). This essay posits that if one wishes to account for impacts of globalization in any particular national setting, then one must start with the domestic institutions of governance, which mediate the challenges of openness. This essay is organized under the following headings:

 1.  The meaning of Globalization

2.  Benefits of Trade

3.  Competition and Consumers

4.  Globalization and Domestic Institutions

5.  Countries and Condominiums

6.  Conclusion

The Concept of Globalization

The world economy is experiencing a fundamental change. We are moving away from a world in which national economies were relatively self – contained entities, isolated from each other by barriers by barriers to cross-border trade and investment, by distance, time zones and language, and by national differences in government regulation, culture, and business systems. And as Hill(2005) observes, we are moving toward a world in which barriers to cross-border trade and   investment are falling, perceived distance is reducing due to technological advances in transportation and telecommunication, material culture is beginning to look similar the world over, national economies are merging into interdependent global economic system. 

Globalization refers to the shift toward a more integrated and interdependent world economy. Globalization has several different features, including globalization of markets, and the globalization of production (Hill, 2005). The different definitions of globalization according to many authors, Annabelle and Betsy(2007), Boudreaux(2008), Schirm(2007) and   Cortell(2006),   converge around a common understanding of globalization as an integration of markets, a cross-border interconnectedness of economic spaces and thus a denationalization of economic process. Therefore, economic globalization shall be defined here as the increasing share of private cross- border activities in the total economic output of countries. With this basic definition, globalization can be measured as the share of foreign trade, foreign direct investment and financial transaction in the gross domestic product of a country or a region and as a share in the world product (Annabelle and Betsy, 2007; Boudreaux, 2008; Schirm, 2007 and Cortell, 2006).

The globalization of markets refers to the merging of historically distinct and separate national markets into one huge global market. Falling barriers to cross border trade have made it easier to sell internationally. For some time, the argument has been that  the  taste  and  preferences of  consumers in  different  nations are beginning to converge on some global norm, thereby helping to create a global market(Bhagwati, 2004).

When we speak of globalization we typically talk of countries becoming more economically integrated with each other, of countries undertaking the actions that result in greater trade. For example, we speak of the United States buying more goods and services from China. So when a newspaper reporter writes that China is selling more goods to the United States, recognize that this statement really means that many individuals in that region of the globe that we call „China“ are spending more of their time and resources making things for shipment to that part of the globe that we call „the United States“ where many persons living there choose to buy these things.

This  insistence  that  individuals rather  than  countries  drive  commerce  might sound trite. It is not. Much misunderstanding sprouts from the failure to keep in mind that trade is done by persons not by countries or by governments. With this realization front and center, we correctly understand international trade as motivated by the same forces, and as unleashing the same consequences, as trade among citizens of the same country.

 Benefits of Trade

 The question that comes to mind in the wake of globalization is: Why do any two persons trade with each other? The answer is as obvious as it appears to be, because each party to a trade expects to be made better off by that trade. If you choose to spend

$5.00 for a cup of coffee at Starbucks, you do so because, as you judge your own well- being, that cup of coffee will give you greater satisfaction than would whatever else you might buy with that $5.00. The owner of  the  Starbucks franchise also has similar reasons. Having an additional $5.00 in her still is worth more to her than keeping on hand the coffee she sells to you. Nothing about this explanation for voluntary trade implies that people do not make mistakes. Perhaps after taking a few sips of the coffee you realize that you ordered regular when you meant to order decaffeinated, or that you suddenly are no longer in the mood for coffee. You then regret for any purchase that is made.

But at the time you made the trade, clearly you thought that buying that cup of coffee was in your best interest. Otherwise you would not have bought it. When we look at the world with snapshot vision—say, looking at it only as it exists on a particular day such as August 24, 2012—about the only steps we can take to improve human well- being is to reallocate things that already exist. The example of you buying a cup of coffee from Starbucks involves such a reallocation. The coffee beans used to brew your coffee already existed when you decided to purchase your cup of coffee, as did the cardboard cup in which it was served to you, the machine that brewed the coffee, and the retail space that you entered to make your purchase. But even though nothing new was produced by your purchase, it is important to see that voluntary exchange generally makes all parties to the transaction better off. You are better off because ownership of that  cup of  coffee  was  reallocated from Starbucks to  you; Starbucks is  better  off because ownership of the $5.00 was reallocated from you to Starbucks. By simply reallocating goods from people who value them less to people who value them more, the well-being of society is increased.

 And because each of us has incentives to seek out and strike deals that make us better off, and to avoid deals that do not, voluntary exchange, even of things that already exist, generally improves human well-being. But our well-being would not be improved very much if we did nothing but exchange things that already exist. Much greater and continuing improvement requires production. For standards of living to increase the economy must transform „inputs“ into desirable „outputs.“

A far more interesting question is what causes this wealth? Before we explore the answer to this question, it’s interesting to notice that Smith did not ask „what causes poverty.“ Smith(1981) would have found such a question to be odd, if not downright meaningless. In Smith’s time, even in relatively prosperous Western Europe, poverty was widespread. Poverty was the norm. Smith understood that poverty has no causes; it is, to use a modern term, humankind’s default mode.  

If each of us does nothing, if each of us exerts no creativity and no effort, we will all be miserably poor. It is no challenge to „create“ poverty. The real challenge, Smith realized, is to create wealth, especially enough wealth so that it is regularly available to ordinary people. Smith saw that wealth is rooted in specialization, what he called „the division of labor.“ If each of us must produce everything that we consume, with no help from others, we would be unimaginably poor. How does specialization cause such awesome increases in total output? Smith(1981) identified three reasons.

 First, specialization reduces the time spent moving from job to job. Someone who tends crops in the morning and then cleans skyscraper windows in the afternoon must spend a good deal of time each day traveling from the farm to the city and back. This time spent moving from one job to the next is time not spent producing output. So if Sam specializes in producing nothing but wheat and Suzy specializes in doing nothing but cleaning windows, together they will produce more output than they would if each worked at both tasks.

 Second, specialization promotes the acquisition of skills; it promotes what Smith called „the increase of dexterity in every particular workman.“ If each day you spend only five minutes practicing the piano, you will never become a good piano player. This is true even if you are blessed with vast natural talent for that musical instrument. To become highly skilled, each week you must play the piano for many hours. And the more time you devote to playing the piano, the better you become at it. Put differently, the less time you must spend doing other things—growing your food, making your clothes, mowing the lawn, practicing karate—the more time you can spend honing your skills as a pianist and thus the better you become at making music with that instrument. What’s true for piano playing is true for nearly every other endeavor. Persons who become skilled automobile mechanics achieve this distinction only by devoting a good portion of their time each week to repairing cars and trucks. Bakers spend much time baking. Neurosurgeons spend much time learning and practicing brain surgery. Practice and experience may not make someone perfect, but they are sure do improve that person’s skills.

 Third, specialization increases the likelihood of machinery replacing human labor and, thereby, releasing that labor to produce outputs that could not before be produced. Suppose you visit a factory and see each worker performing all the tasks required to produce a pin. Each worker pulls some wire from a roll, cuts it, sharpens one end to a point and flattens the other end to make the pin’s head. Each worker also packs the pins he or she makes into packing crates for shipment to market. If the factory owner asks you, „Hey, do you think you can make a machine to do what one of these workers does?“ how will  you answer? You would have to be  an  exceptional genius of  an engineer to design and manufacture a single machine that does several very different tasks.   But now suppose that you visit another pin factory, one that has the same number of workers as the first factory.

 In this second factory, however, one worker specializes in pulling the wire from the spool; a second worker specializes in cutting the wire; a third worker specializes in sharpening  one  end  of  each  piece  of  cut  wire  into  a  pin  point;  a  fourth  worker specializes in flattening the other ends of the pins into pinheads; and so on. If the owner of this second factory asks you to make a machine to do one of these tasks, you are more likely to agree that designing and manufacturing such a machine is doable. A machine that does nothing but, say, cut wire into pin-length strips is vastly easier to conceive and to build than is a machine that does this task plus many others.

 So, Adam Smith reasoned, when a worker specializes in performing a distinct task, chances increase that this worker, or someone observing him, will perceive an opportunity for inventing a machine to do this specific task. With a machine now doing a task that previously required human labor, workers who once performed this task can now perform other  productive tasks.  Society gets  more  output  than before.  Smith concluded that the wealth of nations grows with the division of labor and with the trade that naturally follows from it.

 As each of us specializes in doing a small, distinct job—teaching economics, preparing income tax returns, performing dentistry, playing French horn for the New York Philharmonic orchestra—and then exchanging our output for that of millions of other specialists, we are all better off. Smith’s explanation for the wealth-producing effects of specialization is important. But it was left to a younger British economist, Ricardo (2003), to discover and explain another, more fundamental reason why specialization  increases  the  wealth  of  nations.  That  reason  is  the  principle  of comparative advantage, and it is one of the most important discoveries in all of the social sciences.

 The discussion so far reveals several different ways that specialization increases society’s total  output of goods and services. Specialization saves workers‘ time, it enhances each worker’s skill at  performing his or her job, it promotes the  use of machinery, and, perhaps most importantly, specialization done according to each worker’s comparative advantage ensures that each productive task is performed by workers who can perform that task most efficiently. That is, at the lowest possible cost. Another interesting, and counter intuitive fact is revealed if we combine Smith’s insight of how specialization increases the skill of each worker with Ricardo’s insight about comparative advantage. Return to the above example in which Ann has a comparative advantage in fishing while Bob has a comparative advantage in gathering bananas. As we saw, under these circumstances, Ann will specialize more in fishing while Bob specializes more in banana gathering. But now suppose that one day while out fishing Ann is struck by a creative insight about how she can increase her daily catch. She might, for example, realize that using her sweater as fishing net will enable her to catch more fish daily than before. Now using more „capital goods“ (her fishing net) than she used previously, Ann’s capacity to catch fish rises. Let’s assume that using the net increases her capacity to catch fish from 200 fish per month to 300 fish per month.

 Ann’s capacity to produce fish now is higher (by 100 fish per month), although her capacity to gather bananas is unchanged. And, of course, Ann’s innovative use of her sweater as a fishing net does nothing to increase the quantities of bananas and of fish that Bob can produce in a month. In other words, while Ann certainly is better off having discovered an improved means of catching fish, Ann’s discovery does not make Bob better off. In fact, Ann’s greater capacity to catch fish makes even Bob at least potentially better off. To see how, note that before Ann began using a net, she was twice as efficient at fishing as Bob: each fish then cost Ann one-half a banana while each fish cost Bob one full banana. Now, not surprisingly, because her use of the net increases her efficiency at fishing, the cost to Ann of catching fish falls. Using her sweater as fishing net, each fish now costs Ann only one-third of a banana. She now gives up fewer bananas for each fish that she catches.

 But here’s the fascinating fact: by becoming a better fisherman, Ann necessarily becomes a worse banana gatherer. This is true even though her capacity to produce bananas remains unchanged. Before Ann learned to use the net, each banana she produced cost her two fish. Now, because using the net increases Ann’s capacity to catch fish, each banana that she might now produce would cost her three fish. And although Bob’s cost of gathering bananas has not changed, it remains one fish per banana; his cost of gathering bananas relative to Ann’s cost has indeed fallen. Before Ann improved her capacity to catch fish, Bob’s cost of producing bananas was half of Ann’s cost of producing bananas (one fish per banana for Bob compared to two fish per banana for Ann). Now that Ann is a more productive fisherman, Bob’s cost of producing bananas falls to one-third of what it costs Ann to produce bananas (one fish per banana for Bob compared to three fish per banana for Ann). In other words, when Ann improves her advantage over Bob at fishing, she simultaneously and unavoidably improves Bob’s advantage over her at gathering bananas.

This comparative lowering of Bob’s cost of producing bananas means that Bob enjoys at least the potential of increasing the number of fish that he can persuade Ann to give him for every banana that he sells to her. Before Ann began to use the net, the most that she would pay for each of Bob’s bananas was two fish; now she is willing to pay up to three fish per banana.

 Competition and Consumers

 In the example above of comparative advantage, the gains from specialization and trade are shared pretty equally between Ann and Bob. This equality of sharing the gains  from  trade,  however,  need  not  be  true  in  reality  in  order  for  comparative advantage still to work for the improvement of all peoples‘ material well-being. If Ann is a more skilled bargainer than Bob, she might persuade Bob to accept fewer fish in exchange for his bananas. Being a better bargainer than Bob, Ann will enjoy more of the gains from specialization and trade than Bob will. But as long as both parties voluntarily trade with each other, each person nevertheless is made better off than he or she would be without specializing and trading. No matter how good a bargainer Ann might be, she will never persuade Bob to pay more than one banana for each of her fish. Bob will not pay, for example, 1.1 bananas for a fish from Ann given that he can produce each of his own fish at a cost to him of 1.0 bananas.

In reality, of course, there are millions of consumers and millions of producers, with each producer being highly specialized. No single person today, for example, specializes in making automobiles. Instead, automobiles are produced by thousands of people, each of whom specializes in one or two finely distinct tasks, such as designing body styles, building parts for internal-combustion engines, cutting sheet metal, welding, tanning leather for the seats, and so on. As workers specialize at ever more narrow tasks, the productivity from specialization increases, both for the reasons identified by Adam Smith and because of the principle of comparative advantage. Compared to our simple two-person, two-good example, the real world is marked by a division of labor that is wider (there are millions of goods and services, not only two, produced and consumed) and deeper (the production of each good or service for market typically requires many different specialists, each of whom contributes his or her talents to produce only a part of the final output).

 A widening and a deepening of the division of labor increases total output. Another consequence is that each person, while specializing at producing only one kind of output, deals as a consumer with countless numbers of suppliers. As a producer, your dentist performs a highly specialized task, but as a consumer he buys goods and services from many different suppliers—grocers, barbers, oil companies, furniture makers among others. The list is practically endless. Also unlike in the simple two- person model featuring Ann and Bob, the real world division of labor does not result in each producer having a monopoly over his particular task. Large numbers of people participating in  an  economy means not only that the  division of labor widens and deepens, it means also that several people will have a comparative advantage at any specific task.

The  result  is  competition  among  these  specialist  producers  for  consumers‘ dollars. With lots of fishermen, Ann will be obliged to sell her fish at prices no higher than those charged by other fishermen. With lots of banana sellers, Bob will be obliged to sell his bananas at prices no higher than those charged by other banana growers. So another advantage of international trade is that it increases the number of competitors in each industry which, in turn, helps to ensure that producers keep their prices competitive. We saw above that when Ann’s capacity to catch fish increases, this improvement creates the potential to make Bob better off even though nothing about Bob’s productive abilities changes. Competition makes this potential a reality. When Ann becomes a better fisherman, she captures more of the fish market by lowering her prices to levels that before would have been unprofitable.

 If producers can collude to avoid this competition, they will do so. But collusion is practically possible only when the number of producers in an industry is very small and when the  likelihood of  new entry is minuscule. Shielding domestic producers from foreign rivals only increases the likelihood of successful collusion among firms in an industry.

 Greater numbers of competitors mean also greater prospects for discovering and implementing improvements in production techniques, and a greater likelihood that such improvements will be mimicked or even bettered by other producers. The result of this competitive process is that, over time, production costs fall and prices are driven down to these new lower costs of supplying the good or service.

 Globalization and Domestic Institutions

 Although the constraints on government policy have been often overstated, there is no disputing the fact that economic interdependence has grown very significantly over the past four decades. The facts concerning globalization are familiar. Reflecting a reduction in the transaction costs of international economic exchange, trade in goods and services and especially capital flows have increased notably in the last thirty years. For the average developed country, trade in goods and services as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has expanded from approximately 45 per cent to 65 per cent between the mid-1960s and mid-1990s (The World Bank, 2003).

 Total borrowing on international capital markets rose to more than $830 billion in 1995, from less than $360 billion just five years before (OECD 1996). Declines in covered interest rate differentials and liberalization of controls on movements of goods, services, and finance have proceeded apace. While observers have noted distinct limits to globalization (e.g., Berger and Dore 1996; Keohane and Milner 1996; Weiss 1998), there is little question that internationalization has significantly expanded during the post-Bretton Woods era. While these figures show that national economies are far more inter dependent today than in the recent past (though not necessarily more than a century ago), the implied conclusion that they support the existence of a strong globalization tendency which in turn constrains state capacity has been widely challenged. Indeed, the main critical response to the idea of globalization as constraint has been a quantitative one, which consists in showing that globalization is far less advanced  than  its  proponents  have  claimed.  Many  scholars  skeptical  of  such  a tendency have sought to counter the idea of an all-powerful, border-erasing force at work by setting these quantitative changes within a larger perspective, assessing their overall weight as a proportion of national economic activity.

 Beyond measurement accounts focusing on how far globalization has advanced are valuable for infusing quantitative analysis with a historical perspective that ably clarifies the real extent of globalization. But, as a critical response, the measurement approach remains limited and inconclusive. For one thing, it has produced a stalemate: if globalists are not impressed with these findings, it is because they can always counter with the claim that even if globalization has not yet gone far, it is surely only a matter of time. Moreover, a focus on the extent of globalization may set us on a false trail.

 The larger message is the need for a new research agenda, which focuses on the   enabling  face  of   globalization.  Many  writers,  (Annabelle  and  Betsy(2007), Boudreaux, 2008; Schirm,2007 and  Cortell, 2006),  have contributed to that endeavor. It adds to a small but substantial literature covering a variety of topics – from financial liberalization to  industrial  relations  –  which  presents  compelling  arguments  for  an enabling view of globalization. I extract from literature two theoretical arguments, adding a third of my own, as to why globalization does not produce a ‘race to the bottom‘ in government taxation and spending policies, and why it does not in principle prevent governments from pursuing desired economic and social objectives. So rather than implementing generalized cuts, governments will often have strong political incentives either to sustain or to increase domestic compensation.

 This is the widely overlooked ‘political logic‘ of voice that acts as a countertendency to the ‘economic logic‘ of exit, as argued by Garrett (1998a). This view of interdependence, as a process that encourages governments to balance openness with social protection, has a distinguished pedigree, linking back to Katzenstein’s (1985) pioneering work on the small states of northern Europe where he found trade openness strongly associated with well-developed measures aimed at providing ‘domestic compensation‘ for labor and industry. In the small states context, Katzenstein found that the strength of economic openness correlates with a heightened perception of vulnerability, giving rise to an ideology of social partnership and complementary (corporatist) institutional arrangements. Thus ‘small states‘ in the Katzensteinian sense can be seen as the forerunners of globalizations‘ ‘enabling‘ dynamic in the developed democracies.

From what has been argued so for, one may generate the following hypothesis: the greater the level of (trade) interdependence, the stronger the elite perception of vulnerability, and the greater the likelihood of compensatory and inclusionary domestic structures which blunt rather than exacerbate the pressures of openness. The main point, then, is that against the expectation that mobile capital in the form of multinational corporations and financial market investors will generally depress social spending and drive down corporate taxes via threat of exit, one must set the less noted (politically) enabling  impact  of  openness.  By  heightening  perceptions  of  vulnerability  among different social groups, the latter has the potential to encourage compensatory responses from government. The stress on ‘potential‘ is important because the responses vary with institutional setting. As Swank(2003) says, the ‘political logic‘ of enablement impacts differently according to the prevailing normative and organizational conditions – hence explaining, for example, the more fiscally restrained patterns of welfare reform in liberal-market economies like Britain, compared with the more fiscally accommodating or moderately expansive patterns respectively in sectorally or centrally coordinated-market systems like Germany and Sweden, all nowadays highly interdependent economies.

In  a  parallel manner for  East Asia, Garrett (1998b).   argues that the  more competitive the political system (as a result of democratization), the more governments have become responsive to welfare constituencies in a period of growing economic openness, even in the absence of any real political commitment to a welfare system. However potentially mobile the modern corporation may be, increased exposure to world markets heightens the firm’s need for continuous innovation, industrial upgrading, and competent workers. So instead of generalized slashing of corporate taxes and shifting the tax burden from capital to labor, governments will often have strong incentives to provide services to capital in exchange for maintaining tax revenue. As a number of scholars have observed, for all the neoclassical strictures about the harm wrought by state intervention, internationally oriented firms are still prone to welcome the benefits offered by a host of government programs (Garrett, 1998a).

At the very least, this offers a plausible way of explaining why, in many national settings, internationally mobile firms may be willing to sustain relatively high tax (and spending) levels, contrary to the standard expectations of capital exit. For this is where the  overall  evidence points, as Weiss(2003) demonstrates, subjecting ‘race-to the- bottom‘ claims to the test in a compelling analysis of the state’s fiscal profile in the current golden period of globalization. Overturning conventional expectations, Weiss‘ findings leave little room for doubting the general trend: notwithstanding limited oscillations and country particularities over time, it is clear that the tax burden on corporations in the OECD has generally increased rather than declined in the period of rising economic interdependence, that governments have not shifted the tax burden from capital to labor and, moreover, that they have generally increased taxes. To these two arguments, we can add a third as to why globalization has enabling rather than simply constraining effects on national governance.

 This concerns the way in which intensified competitive pressures may threaten to destabilize key sectors of the economy – from agriculture to telecommunications and finance. The effect of such competitive challenges is to urge governments to devise new policy  responses, new  regulatory  regimes,  and  similar  restructuring reforms.  Most critically, responding to these new challenges creates incentives for governments to develop new or strengthen existing policy networks. For some purposes, this entails the expansion of intergovernmental cooperation in more or less permanent fora (e.g., the EU, WTO, BIS, G8). For others, it involves the extension of links between government and business in order to increase or improve policy input from the private sector. In both domestic and international settings, the capacity for economic governance may be enhanced by more effective information sharing and policy implementation. In each case, neither government nor business autonomy is thereby negated. Rather, it is ‘enmeshed‘ in a network of interdependencies, the rules for which are established by government – hence ‘governed interdependence‘.

 The overall effect of such changes is a transformation in the state’s relational enmeshment with other power actors. Staying with the domestic setting, the more general  point  to  emphasize  is  that  openness  can  create  strong  pressures  for maintaining or extending cooperative ties between government and industry, as well as for information sharing, for coordinated responses to collective action problems, and more generally for  the  state to  act as provider of collective goods. Of course the transformation of public–private sector relations is not the only possible outcome of globalizations‘ enabling dynamic. In some cases – the Chinese response to WTO- induced  reforms  being  the  exemplary  one,  preparing  for  increased  competitive pressures has led to the restructuring of central–local government relations rather than of public–private sector ones.

 As a result of new power-sharing arrangements between the different units of government, the capacity of the Chinese state has been transformed from one based on the closed-economy model of central planning to one based on selective intervention at both national and local levels. But outside the somewhat special case of China, in the developed democracies the more general principle applies, whereby increasing policy input from encompassing economic groups in the private sector tends to strengthen the state’s transformative capacity. This principle is nicely illustrated in a number of existing studies,  in  particular,  Cortel’s  study  of  agricultural  reform in  France  (2000),  Mark Lehrer’s analysis of the growth of high-technology entrepreneurship in Germany (2000), as well as the account of industrial upgrading in European and East Asian countries.

 In a pioneering study of the highly globalised derivatives markets, Cortel offers further evidence of a similar dynamic at work in this most unexpected quarter. Also running contrary to expectations about the demise of transformative capacity in East Asia is the Korean state’s recent partnering with organized industry groups to create, inter alia, a domestic software industry, highlighted by Weiss(2003). Such examples add flesh to a larger theoretical point advanced in this essay: namely, that globalization does indeed impact on national governance and its domestic structures, but the impact is not only, or even generally, constraining. For globalization also contributes to the expansion of  governing  capacities  through  both  the  transformation  of  public–private  sector relations and the growth of policy networks.

 The important point to reiterate is that the extent to which these enabling conditions (of international competition) and the political incentives for intervention that they generate are likely to be actualized and to inform policy making will depend heavily on institutional features of the domestic environment. As Weiss(2003) stated, although the economic incentives for particular kinds of intervention may be extremely strong and the national political rewards high – as would certainly be the case for a national strategy to upgrade Thailand’s low technology industries, an issue of critical importance since the Asian crisis – the political and economic institutional capacities may nonetheless be lacking or inadequate to the new developmental tasks. In this context, globalizations‘ enabling qualities turn into constraints.

 If  we  switch  focus  from  social  protection  to  promotion  of  wealth  creation strategies in industry, technology, and finance, whether the enabling features of globalization lead to more market-competitive or more public-private cooperation will once   again   depend  largely  upon   the   character  of   the   prevailing  norms   and arrangements. In liberal market contexts, characterized by arms-length approaches, norms of competitive liberalism, and non-interventionist traditions, economic openness has generally enabled governments to deepen market mechanisms in line with pro- competitive norms and pro-consumer preferences.

 On the other hand, in coordinated market contexts, characterized by traditions of statecraft, coordinated or state-guided approaches to economic change, and strong policy networks linking state and business, globalization has generally enabled both governments and business to manage openness in line with pro-producer preferences and the goals of strengthening the national economy (Weiss, 1998). As further substantive research casts light on the mediating role of domestic institutions, we may learn more about the triangular relationship concerning the logics of constraint, enablement, and institutional response.

 The Keynesian theory

 One  conclusion  that  derives  from  the  classical  theory  is  that  in  the  long  run, unemployment is not possible, the market for labor would have adjusted to clear. In the 1920s and 1930s, the whole world something called the great depression. Prices of commodities went down, production went down, and unemployment increased drastically. For  Keynes, who  was  living  at  that  time,  the  classical  theory seemed nonsensical due to the fact that there was mass unemployment, which persisted for a long period. In his book; The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, he gave an explanation of how he felt it was possible to have persistent unemployment in the long run. His overriding conclusion was that the level of output in the economy depended very largely on the level of demand, not just for the individual commodity, but rather the aggregate demand for the entire economy. He argued that without adequate demand, producers will not produce enough to keep everyone employed. He concluded that it might be necessary for agents such as governments to intervene in the workings of the general economy to make sure that the markets are pushed to the desirable equilibria. Much of the current thinking in economics has been influenced by Keynesian theory.

 Conclusion

 Specialization and trade are absolutely essential to widespread prosperity. Not only does  specialization  improve  each  worker’s  capacity  to  produce,  but  when  done according to producers‘ comparative advantage, specialization ensures that each good and service is produced at the lowest possible cost. And competition among producers spurs not only a continual quest for further improvements in production efficiency but also  the  necessity  of  each  producer  eventually  to  share  the  value  of  these improvements with  consumers in  the  form of  lower  prices. Restricting consumers‘ choices to those products produced within a particular country, in addition to restricting the degree to which labor can specialize, artificially chokes off this competition. Any creative ideas that foreign entrepreneurs might contribute about how to improve product quality or production efficiency are excluded by government policy from the domestic market.

 The result is a narrower and shallower division of labor, as well as less creativity and competition put at the service of the domestic economy. Nevertheless, the economic gains that result from a global division of labor might be insufficient to compensate for other (real or imagined) downsides of such an international reach of specialization and competition. The bulk of the evidence from empirical research and the most widely accepted theories confirm the fact that free trade promotes widespread prosperity and that globalization is a boon to humankind.

 If two individuals find trade with each other to be advantageous, the presence or absence of a political boundary running between these persons‘ physical locations is economically irrelevant. The expected gains from trade that motivate each of them to exchange with the other do not disappear or change simply by declaring that one of the people is a citizen of country A while the other person is a citizen of country B. And because opportunities for specialization increase with expansions of the geographic range and in the numbers of people over which economic exchanges occur, refusing to let political boundaries define economic boundaries increases prosperity.

 Antiglobalists who rest their arguments against free trade on the undesirability of economic uncertainty must also oppose any and all sources of economic change, including advances in technology, freedom of domestic entrepreneurs, and changes in consumers‘ tastes. Antiglobalists who oppose only the uncertainty created by trade across international borders are inconsistent, for economic change comes from many other sources as well. Second, globalization also decreases some kinds of uncertainty. Any economic downturn that causes consumers to cut back on their spending is more likely to afflict just one country or one part of the globe than to afflict the entire world all at once. So firms that sell to customers around the world—just like firms that receive supplies from around the world—do not have all of their eggs in one basket. These firms‘ customer bases are diversified, meaning that an economic downturn that causes some of their customers to cut spending is more likely to be offset by economic upturns elsewhere that prompt others of their customers to spend more. Uncertainty is reduced for these globally diversified firms and their workers.

 Third, no one is forced to participate in the global economy. Anyone who wants to escape international commerce can do so without forcing others to join in his or her isolation from the world economy. The truly devoted antiglobalist can buy a plot of land—the world has a good deal of arable land available at reasonable prices—and live self-sufficiently, without  trading with  others. He  (perhaps along  with his immediate family) can supply his own food and drink, build his own house, gather his own water, cut his own trees to get wood for fuel, make his own clothes and shoes, provide his own medical care, and create his own entertainment. This self-sufficient person will  be immune to corporate manipulation, financial speculators, exchange-rate swings, IMF and  WTO  policies, and  wage  pressures  unleashed  by  expanded  global  trade.  Of course, the price this person must pay for this immunity from the global economy is a life of almost unimaginable poverty. Almost no antiglobalist is willing to pay this price.

 Most antiglobalists want two inconsistent things. They want immunity from the forces  of  economic    change  and  they  want  the  goods  and  services  that  market capitalism makes possible. They cannot have both. Essential to market capitalism is the freedom of entrepreneurs to offer new products and the freedom of consumers to buy these products if they choose (that is, consumer sovereignty). These freedoms necessarily mean that no producer, including no worker, enjoys a guaranteed market. These freedoms necessarily mean that, along with the immense wealth made widely available by  market  capitalism, every  producer and  consumer  must  tolerate  some amount of economic uncertainty. There is nothing wrong, of course, with attempts to reduce the negative consequences of this uncertainty as much as possible. Perhaps, as Kenneth F. Scheve and Matthew J. Slaughter propose in their article, „A New Deal for

Globalization,“ government should create programs aimed at helping workers displaced by changes wrought by freer trade. But consider this question: Are workers who lose their jobs to foreign firms more deserving of government assistance than are workers who lose their jobs to domestic rivals, to improved technologies, or simply to changes in consumer preferences?) What governments should not do, if they seek maximum long- run prosperity for their citizens, is to pretend that restricting trade either increases prosperity or decreases economic uncertainty. Protectionism does neither.

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