OCD, Self-esteem, and Self-confidence its all in one


Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is such a debilitating disorder that it effects all of the personality and mindset of a persons well-being. It doesn’t just affect that of having to make a person wash his/her hands or make him/her check locks or windows. It effects everything of that person.

Let me explain….

Depression: Depression is very closely linked to that of OCD. It wears heavily on the persons well-being of having to do anything during that of his/her day. OCD makes a person feel worthless for having to check all of the time or having to wash your hands or take constant showers all of the time. I know for me personally it wore on me so heavily on depression that I had to be hospitalised and have shock treatment to come out or be lifted out of my „down“ periods.

Self-esteem: Self-esteem is another thing that takes a hit when one has OCD. And when one has OCD their self-esteem is usually pretty low or non-existant, and this is where depression sets in. So one has to set one apart from the rest and work on selfesteem too as well as their OCD.

Self-confidence: self-confidence is another aspect that needs work on when one has OCD. All a person can think about is checking and washing when he/she has OCD, and their day is consumed with the behaviour they think they have to do and invariably end up doing it to no end. Low self-confidence wears on all of our being and knows no end to it’s strength when it has a hold of us, so it’s imperative that we grab ahold of it and increase it to a level where it is off the charts
so we can enjoy life again.

And we all know that when we feel down our self-esteem and self-confidence take a bad hit. Thats why as an OCD sufferer you should constantly work on your self-esteem and self-confidence as well as that of your OCD directly. Your self-esteem and self-confidence are closely related to your feelings and your feelings take a big hit due to your behaviours and actions during the day.

Let me introduce you to my knew website that lets you work on all three(3) aspects of your well-being, your OCD, your self-esteem, and your self-confidence,… you can visit the all new never released yet website at http://www.stopocd-thecourse.com

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Source by Burke Ferguson

Benefits and Challenges of Multinational Companies (MNCs)


Multinational companies (MNCs) are not without benefits, which may be to the government, the economy, and the people or even to itself. Cole (1996) stated that the size of multinational organization is enormous; many of them have total sales well in excess of the GND of many of the world’s nations. Cole also stated that World Bank statistics of comparison between multinational companies and national GNPs shows, for example, that large oil firms such as Exxon and Shell are large in economic terms that nations such as South Africa, Australia and Argentina are substantially greater than nations such as Greece, Bulgaria and Egypt.

Other large multinational companies include General Motors, British Petroleum, Ford and International Business Machine (IBM). Some of the benefits of multinational companies are:

1. There is usually huge capital investment in major economic activities

2. The country enjoys varieties of products, services and facilities, brought to their door steps

3. There is creation of more jobs for the populace

4. The nation’s pool of skills are best utilized and put to use effectively and efficiently

5. There is advancement in technology as these companies bring in state-of-the-art-technology for their businesses

6. The demand for training and retraining and advancement in the people’s education becomes absolutely necessary. This will in turn help strengthen the economy of the nation

7. The living standard of the people is boosted

8. Friendliness between and among nations in trade i.e. it strengthen international relation

9. The balance of payments of nations in trade are improved on

In the words of Cole (1996), he stated that the sheer size (and wealth) of multinationals means that they can have a significant effect on host country. To Cole, most of the effects are beneficial and include some of the above or all. The Electronic Library of Scientific Literature (1996) explained the benefits of MNCs under a theory known as ‚The Theory of Externalities‘. The theory considers the benefits of MNCs from the point of view of those who maintain the importance of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as part of the engine necessary for growth. In the contribution of Davies (1989), he gave some theories on the benefits/advantages of multinational. Davies (1989:260) tagged this ‚Economic Theory‘ and the multinational where he took a comprehensive and critical look at the benefits of MNCs.

More benefits came along with these people’s theories and some are:

1. There is significant injection into the local economy in respect to investment

2. Best utilization of the country’s natural resources

3. They help in strengthening domestic competition

4. They are good source of technological expertise

5. Expansion of market in the host country

PROBLEMS/CHALLENGES FACING MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

There is no company without problems it is facing. Whether an organization is big or small, there will certainly be some sort of problems or negative factor/influence militating against its survival or continuity. Weihrich and Koontz (1994) states that the operation of multinational companies needs to be weighed against the environmental challenges and most of the challenges being faced by multinational companies are:

1. There is usually acute shortage of manpower – people with lack of managerial and technical skills

2. The challenge of unfriendly business environment

3. There is usually the problem of conflicting interest among the three parties – the government, the MNC and the general public

4. There may be huge cost of labour in the host country, at least to get the expatriate managers from home country or somewhere else

Conclusively, the above mentioned authors have given all round and comprehensive note on the benefits of MNCs to the host country where they operate and as well highlighted the derivable benefits to the MNCs themselves from the host country. Likewise, in spite of the challenges and the problems being faced by these MNCs, they still continue to survival and waxing stronger.

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Source by Oluwanisola Seun

Car DVD Player GPS navigation Map : IGO GPS MAP


iGO is a GPS navigation software, familiar to those who use mobile GPS function or Car DVD gps function,it is packaged for PDA/PNA devices, Car DVD player and mobile devices, such as mobile phones, Bluetooth® headsets, smartphones/PDAs and so on. Designed by Hungary-based Nav N Go Kft. Nav N Go iGO is a popular choice for a number of PNA OEM manufacturers. Products based on the company’s navigation software are available worldwide in several leading brands like Clarion, Blaupunkt, Sony, Hewlett-Packard, Nextar, Asus, etc.

iGO My way 2006 is a GPS navigation software package for PDA/PNA devices, introduced in year 2005 at CEBIT, Hannover.

Nav N Go iGO 8 is a newer version of the software, released in April 2008. It offers high-definition 3D navigation maps of terrain,  road elevation, landmarks and 3D buildings, using its unique visualization engine.

iGO amigo was launched at CeBIT 2009, Hanover. It is currently available as built-in navigation software of several PND brands, such as Nextar (in the US) and Navon (in Europe).

Naviextras.com, Nav N Go’s map and content update portal, provides updates for iGO My way 8 and iGO amigo based navigation software and releases map updates typically four times a year. Currently maps and updates are available for over 80 countries and regions, including European, North and South American, African, Middle East, Asian and Oceanian countries.

Go!Explore is the PlayStation Portable version of Navigation N Go iGO 8.

iGO My Way 2009 is the latest version of the software; North America, Western Europe and full Europe versions are currently available. It was first released for iPhone 3G, working under iPhone OS The purchase from Apple App Store includes free map updates until the end of 2010. The iPhone software version 1.0.0 is proven to suffer from several bugs, and the company has promised a bug fix and several new features in their first update. The version for Android OS has been released in December 2009, and version for Windows Mobile is currently in also avaiable.

The version for Windows Mobile has great function such as stunning 3D visualization, Lane guidance and realistic signposts, supports precise voice guidance in numerous languages, Optimized in-car use

We have Nav N Go iGO 8 version map, and we provide IGO map to our customers for free, on condition that you buy a car DVD play with GPS navigation. The map is stored in SD card,2 GB, and you can buy the SD card at about 10 USD, and get the map for free.

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Source by joyceli

Mining In Chile – The Pros And Cons


On 13th October 2010, the last of 33 miners trapped by an accident at the San Jose copper-gold mine near Copiapo, Chile was winched to safety. He had been at a depth of 2,300 feet below ground level. He had spent 69 days trapped underground with his companions after a shaft collapsed at the notoriously dangerous mine where the deaths of 8 miners had been reported over the last 12 years.

This high publicity incident was a catalyst for Chile’s mining regulation agency to bring the hammer down, closing 18 mines within days and scheduling a further 300 for closure. It’s easy to condemn Chilean mining as unsafe and exploitative, but what are the real pros and cons of the industry?

Pros

1) Mining is a great source of income for Chilean workers

Chilean copper mine workers are among the highest-paid miners in South America. However, inflated wages are used to entice workers to mines with poor safety records, as in the case of San Jose; mine workers were paid around 20% more for their troubles.

2) Generally Chilean mines have a good safety record

San Jose is an example of a smaller mine at which standards are known to slip. However, the larger mines generally owned by multi-nationals or the state copper mining company, Codelco, run a tighter ship.

3) Mining brings the benefits of a strong economy to Chileans

Currently enjoying a strong economic status, the population of Chile have good reason to be thankful for the mining industry. Over a third of government income due to exports come from copper alone. One notable benefit of the economic surplus from copper mining is the use of government funds to pay for reconstruction after the 2010 Chilean earthquake.

Cons

1) Inadequate government resources are available to monitor the industry

Between 2004 and 2010, the San Esteban Mining Company (owner of the San Jose mine) received 42 fines for breaching safety regulations. Why was the San Jose accident allowed to happen? Due to budget constraints, there were only three inspectors for the Atacama Region’s 884 mines. Despite a very immediate public response to correct the problems that led to the San Jose disaster, the government still has much to do to bring the industry under control.

2) It isn’t all wine and roses economically

Copper is a highly volatile commodity on the international markets, experiencing increases and decreases in value of up to 50% during the 1980’s. The Chilean government have established a Stabilization Fund to put aside the surpluses of good years to cover the shortfall of others, but the unpredictability of such a core element of the entire country’s economy is a great source of risk.

3) Environmental concerns

Copper mining produces 99 tons of waste for every ton of usable material. When you consider the usable copper output of Chile, that’s a lot of waste.

It isn’t often that Latin American countries get to reap the benefits of their natural resources, and Chile is a good example of a country that turns it’s rich mineral deposits into benefits that reach the population. However, in the rush to make the most of what it’s got, Chile has lost control of the smaller players in the mining industry, and it’s any one’s guess if they will be able to rein things in to the point where accidents like San Jose are a distant memory.

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Source by Gary Sargent

Otolaryngology Answer Five Crucial Questions for Tympanic Repair To Determine Code Selection


Several factors make the selection of a tympanic repair code difficult. Probably the most important is that there are many tympanic repair procedures, from the relatively simple paper patch““ repair to radical tympanoplasty and mastoidectomy with ossicular chain reconstruction.

Tympanic perforations can be caused by trauma“ middle-ear infection cholesteatoma or other disease. Fifteen codes in the „Repair“ subsection of the 69000 series (auditory section) of the CPT manual may be used to report this continuum of tympanic repair procedures and selecting the correct code can be overwhelming.

The coder may lack the knowledge of medical and CPT terminology required to understand how the codes differ from each other. The otolaryngologist may be unaware that the codes do not correspond with the tympanoplasty categories (type I through type V) that he or she is familiar with. For example mastoidectomy a major factor in tympanoplasty coding figures very little in determining the clinical type of tympanoplasty performed.

The difficulties with the codes may be further exacerbated because some of the descriptors do not necessarily match what the otolaryngologist performs.

„This is a classic example of the importance of using CPT rather than clinical terminology at the top of the operative report“ says Randa Blackwell coding and reimbursement specialist with the department of otolaryngology at the University of Maryland in Baltimore. She says new inexperienced coders are unlikely to know the clinical difference between mastoidectomy and mastoidotomy as well as the clinical subtleties that differentiate radical from modified radical or a tympanoplasty with mastoidectomy from a tympanoplasty/mastoidectomy with reconstructed wall.

However if the otolaryngologist’s documentation provides clear answers to the following questions it may be possible to zero in quickly on the correct code.

No. 1: Was the Surgery Performed in the Office or the OR?

The simplest tympanic repair is often referred to as a paper patch and is reported with 69610 (tympanic membrane repair with or without site preparation or perforation for closure with or without patch). This procedure involves patching a small puncture of the eardrum with a cigarette-type paper and is typically performed in the otolaryngologist’s office. Three or four applications of a patch may be needed before the perforation closes completely.

The paper-patch technique sometimes fails and even if the patch is placed correctly it does not always provide prompt or adequate closure of the tympanic membrane perforation. In such cases the otolaryngologist may need to perform myringoplasty which involves using a fat or soft-tissue graft (usually temporalis fascia) to repair the perforation. Unlike the paper patch myringoplasty is typically performed in the operating room (OR) and is coded 69620 (myringoplasty [surgery confined to drumhead and donor area]).

Note: For a discussion on billing tympanic repair grafts see sidebar on page 76.

No. 2: Was Surgery Confined to the Drumhead?

Myringoplasty is often confused with tympanoplasty which is also performed in the OR. However in CPT terms myringoplasty (69620) is a relatively straightforward procedure (8.06 transitioned RVUs and a 10-day global period) but tympanoplasties are more complex procedures (all the tympanoplasty codes have 90-day global periods and describe procedures that require anesthesia and are performed in the OR).

„The key to distinguishing between myringoplasty and tympanoplasty is knowing if the surgery was confined to the drumhead and the donor site for the graft to repair the perforation “ says Lee Eisenberg MD an otolaryngologist in private practice in Englewood N.J. and a member of CPT’s editorial panel and executive committee. „If the surgery was confined to the drumhead it’s a myringoplasty. This means the otolaryngologist enlarged the perforation freshening the edges and then placed a small piece of fat or fascia (harvested at the donor area see code descriptor) into or under the perforation. If however the otolaryngologist elevates the canal wall skin to repair the perforated eardrum or look at the ossicular chain inside the middle ear the procedure is likely best described by a tympanoplasty code.“

Myringoplasty is performed via the ear canal but tympanoplasty a more complex procedure often uses a postauricular incision Eisenberg says.

Because there are a dozen tympanoplasty codes simply noting that a tympanoplasty was performed does not provide enough information to select the correct code for the procedure. To do so you must ask further questions:

No. 3: Was the Mastoid Affected? How Extensively?

The tympanoplasty codes in the CPT manual do not parallel the clinical classification system used by many physicians by which tympanoplasties are placed in one of five „types “ none of which include mastoidectomy. As a result many otolaryngologists and their coders try to match for example a type I tympanostomy with a myringoplasty or a type V tympanostomy with a more complicated tympanostomy code when no connection or similarity exists.

„The tympanoplasty-by-type terminology is not useful for coders “ Blackwell says. „Although a type I tympanoplasty may sometimes conform to a 69620 myringoplasty many procedures categorized by any of the five types may also be categorized as a basic tympanoplasty or one of its variants.“ Eisenberg recommends that otolaryngologists limit the use of clinical terminology to the procedure notes and use CPT terminology whenever possible at the top of the operative report.

To understand how CPT organizes the tympanoplasty codes think of the codes as being arranged in four groups:

1. Without mastoidectomy

2. With mastoidectomy (or mastoidotomy)

3. With mastoidectomy and reconstruction of the canal wall

4. With modified radical or radical mastoidectomy.

Tympanoplasty may be performed with or without mastoidectomy (excision of the mastoid a group of air cells in the bone behind the pinna). In either case the tympanoplasty may include canalplasty (enlarging the ear canal) atticotomy (when the surgeon drills on the posterior bony canal wall to look into the attic) and/or middle-ear surgery such as removing cholesteatomas or granulation tissue or just looking at the ossicles.

If the condition that resulted in the perforated tympanic membrane is limited to the ear the otolaryngologist performs a tympanoplasty without mastoidectomy (69631 tympanoplasty without mastoidectomy [including canalplasty atticotomy and/or middle ear surgery] initial or revision; without ossicular chain reconstruction]). The patient is anesthetized and the middle ear is entered through either the ear canal or postauricular incision then a piece of temporalis fascia is placed beneath the perforation.

In many cases the otolaryngologist suspects that the mastoid is affected (due to cholesteatoma or a chronic draining ear for example) or that a mastoidectomy is needed because of a previously failed tympanoplasty. Like the ethmoid sinuses behind the nose the mastoid in its normal state resembles a honeycomb composed of many bony partitions or air cells.

When a More Extensive Procedure Is Required

If the otolaryngologist decides to enter the mastoid he or she may perform an antrotomy or mastoidotomy to view the mastoid antrum and then evaluate the need for more extensive surgery. This procedure is reported with 69635 (tympanoplasty with antrotomy or mastoidotomy [including canalplasty atticotomy middle ear surgery and/or tympanic membrane repair]; without ossicular chain reconstruction).

If the otolaryngologist decides to do a more complete procedure a mastoidectomy is performed in conjunction with the tympanoplasty. This procedure coded as 69641 (tympanoplasty with mastoidectomy [including canalplasty middle ear surgery tympanic membrane repair]; without ossicular chain reconstruction) involves drilling out all or most of the cells in the mastoid.

If the canal wall is taken down to remove completely all the mastoid contents and is reconstructed use 69643 ( with intact or reconstructed wall without ossicular chain reconstruction).

If the patient’s condition is particularly severe a modified radical or radical mastoidectomy may be needed. Either procedure is coded 69645 ( radical or complete without ossicular chain reconstruction). In the radical technique the otolaryngologist removes most of the mastoid canal wall and middle-ear bones. The modified radical mastoidectomy meanwhile aims to maintain an aerated middle ear.

Note: CPT also includes a series of codes (69501-69511) to report mastoid surgery performed without tympanoplasty.

According to Eisenberg 69645 is confusing because it identifies and describes only a radical mastoidectomy. There is no code for tympanoplasty with modified radical mastoidectomy even though this procedure is preferable and may be performed more often than the true radical mastoidectomy (neither procedure is frequently performed).

Eisenberg maintains that the way the codes are written implies that 69645 and its derivative 69646 should be used for radical and modified radical mastoidectomies.

No. 4: Was Ossicular Chain Reconstruction Done?

If during the course of any of the tympanoplasties described above a defect in the bones is discovered in the bones of the middle ear (ossicles) or if an eroded bone had to be removed during surgery the otolaryngologist may repair the defect by replacing the bone(s) a service referred to as ossicular chain reconstruction. Any middle- ear repairs during tympanoplasty are more likely to be attempted if the ear is dry and not infected.

Sometimes the need for such repairs can be determined prior to surgery. Often however it becomes clear to the otolaryngologist only when the ear is opened completely and examined under the operating microscope. The most common bone erosion occurs at the tip of the incus (anvil) which is connected by a piece of bone only 1.5 mm thick to the stapes (stirrup bone). If the patient had prior infections the circulation to the bone may be obstructed and infection can wear away the connection.

To repair the defect there are several options. A piece of tragal cartilage (the cartilage in front of the ear canal) may be placed or more commonly the patient’s incus or one from a donor is reshaped to replace the missing ossicle.

In some cases a prosthesis made of synthetic material is used instead of bone. For example the physician may insert a strut made from artificial bone. This is porous and allows blood vessels to grow resulting in the complete assimilation of the artificial bone.

Each group of tympanoplasty codes described earlier 69631 69635 (mastoidotomy) 69641 69643 and 69645 includes a secondary code that includes ossicular reconstruction. Two of the categories tympanoplasty without mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty with mastoidotomy also include a tertiary code if a prosthesis is used to aid the reconstruction. The codes are listed as follows:

  • 69632 tympanoplasty without mastoidectomy … initial or revision; with ssicular chain reconstruction (e.g. postfenestration)
  • 69633 with ossicular chain reconstruction and synthetic prosthesis (e.g. partial ossicular replacement prosthesis [PORP] total ossicular replacement prosthesis [TORP])
  • 69636 tympanoplasty with antrotomy or mastoid-otomy …; with ossicular chain reconstruction
  • 69637 with ossicular chain reconstruction and synthetic prosthesis (e.g. partial ossicular replacement prosthesis [PORP] total ossicular replacement prosthesis [TORP])
  • 69642 tympanoplasty with mastoidectomy …; with ossicular chain reconstruction
  • 69644 with intact or reconstructed canal wall with ossicular chain reconstruction
  • 69646 radical or complete with ossicular chain reconstruction.

If ossicular chain reconstruction is performed with either bone or a synthetic prosthesis these codes should be used in place of the primary codes they follow.

No. 5: Was a Revision Performed?

Sometimes a tympanoplasty with mastoidectomy is performed but the patient continues to manifest symptoms such as cholesteatoma. Or the patient may have had acute mastoiditis that required mastoidectomy and now requires a revision mastoidectomy but also has a middle-ear disease that necessitates tympanoplasty. In such cases the otolaryngologist may decide to perform a revision mastoidectomy which is a much different procedure from a mastoidectomy performed on a patient with no history of previous mastoid intervention.

CPT includes one code (69604 revision mastoidectomy; resulting in tympanoplasty) for revision mastoidectomies performed with tympanoplasty. There is however no specific code for tympanoplasty revisions Blackwell notes. If the otolaryngologist performs a revision tympanoplasty the correct tympanoplasty code should be chosen from those listed earlier based on what was performed.

If the revision makes the tympanoplasty more difficult modifier -22 (unusual procedural services) may be used as long as there is appropriate supporting documentation.

As with all documentation the dictation that supports the request for additional fees to compensate for the extra effort required to perform the procedure should use terminology that is CPT-compatible Blackwell says.“

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Source by Gaugan

I/O Device Error Problem and the Simple Ways to Fix It


The I/O Device Error appears when the computer is not responding effectively while reading or copying the data or installing software from CD to DVD drive. In more simple terms it occurs when your computer is not able to complete an input/output operation on the drive which you are accessing for transferring of the data or anything which you’re CD cannot use or recognize at all. But dealing with this error problem is not an insurmountable task as the following simple steps would ensure the rectification of the problem ultimately.

Check for a Defective Disc – First check for any defective disc in your PC, as the message is prompted if the CD disc in use is covered with dust particles which in turn pass it on to your CD drive and also check for any fingerprints on the drive, then clean the sides by wiping from inner parts to outer edges, insert the disc and try again.

Check for the Defective Drive in your PC, which you can make out when it is not able to read the disc inserted, but the CD is able to run on drives of other systems; and this requires cleaning up or repair of the drive.

Check for Incorrect Transfer Mode – One might be trying an incorrect transfer mode which in turn does not allow the removable drive to recognize the copy or transfer technique used by operating system and this requires immediate alteration of some of the IDE properties. To rectify this problem, go to ‘My Computer’, select “Manage” and select Device Manger from it. Check for the CD or DVD drive in the ATA/ATAPI list, select the particular drive (device 1) and opt for properties. Then go to “Advanced Setting” and select “Transfer Mode” in which choose “PIO only”. Then press OK while returning to the main screen and restart the system.

If even after this, the error is not rectified, go back to the drive properties again and choose “DMA if available” for device 1. For device 0, select “PIO only”. Close the windows and restart the computer.
Check for loose cables in your system by checking for wiring and connections of hard disk and the CD, and try removing and reconnecting them, and copying the files again.

Keep updating CD drivers always by downloading the latest CD drivers otherwise the operating system could not recognize them. After downloading, restart the computer, transfer some files and check for the presence of the error. To effectively deal with I/O device error, try downloading the updated files frequently released by Windows and the OSs to check for incompatibility problem.

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Source by Tauqeer Ul Hassan

What’s the Difference Between DS3 and T3 Bandwidth?


Don’t be confused about the difference between DS3 and T3 circuits. These terms are really synonymous. Instead you should focus on what they can do for you…and the best scenarios for application.

Digital Signal (DS) is a system of classifying digital circuits according to the rate and format of the signal (DS) and the equipment providing the signals (T). DS and T designations have come to be used synonymously so that DS1 implies T1, and DS3 implies T3.

A DS3 line (also known as a T-3) is an ultra high-speed connection capable of transmitting data at rates up to 45 Mbps. A DS3 line is equal to approximately 672 regular voice-grade telephone lines, which is fast enough to transmit full-motion, real-time video, and very large databases over a busy network. A DS3 line is typically installed as a major networking artery for large corporations and universities with high-volume network traffic. Other example applications include large call centers, enterprise wide VoIP and IP PBX systems, Internet service providers, research labs, video conference centers and software development companies. A DS3 is the second fastest, non optical connection offered in North America. A DS3 line is comprised of 28 T1 lines, each operating at total signaling rate of 1.544 Mbps.

DS3 circuits provide businesses and Internet Service Providers (ISPs) with up to 45 Mb/s of dedicated Internet connectivity. This is an ideal solution for users who have outgrown their T1 connections and are in search of unlimited, high-capacity access. A DS3 line actually consists of 672 individual channels, each of which supports 64 Kb/s. DS3 lines are extremely high bandwidth connections into a carrier’s backbone. They typically include SLAs (Service Level Agreements) that guarantee uptime and performance.

The DS3 signal itself is composed of 28 DS1 signals and is constructed using a two-step multiplexing process. First, the 28 DS1 signals are multiplexed into seven DS2 signals. Second, the seven DS2 signals are multiplexed into one DS3 signal. Each multiplexing step uses bit stuffing to handle the different input frequencies. Overhead bits provide alignment, error checking, in-band communications, and bit stuffing control information.

Line rate: 44,736,000 b/s

Signals: 7 DS2 signals = 28 DS1 signals

Overhead bits:

56 bits total/frame

F-bits (framing) 28 bits/

M-bits (multiframing) 3 bits/

C-bits (stuffing) 21 bits

X-bits (message) 2 bits/

P-bits (parity) 2 bits/

Data bits between overhead bits 84

A DS3 connection is comprised up of two monthly charges: the local loop and the port charge. The local loop charge is the cost of the circuit provided by the Local Exchange Carrier (LEC) that allows DS3 access into the carrier’s network. The loop charge is based on the distance from the customer’s location to the edge of the carrier’s network; the farther the customer is from the network, the more the loop will cost. Nearly every carrier prices loops differently so it is in your best interest to price DS3 service with several providers to ensure that you get the best deal.

DS Internet Access is the ideal solution for businesses that require high-bandwidth access at a reduced price. Whether you host high-traffic Web sites, support Web hosting or need high-capacity bandwidth on an as-needed basis, there’s a level of DS3 service (Full or fractional) that will meet your needs. Fractional to full DS3 or T3 circuits run from speeds of 3 Mbps up to 45 Mbps.

For customers that require more bandwidth than a T1 line can provide but do not yet require the capacity of a full DS3 line, a fractional DS3 connection is the ideal solution. A fractional DS3 is similar to a full DS(T)3, only with some of the channels turned off. This reduces the total monthly cost and provides additional capacity that can be turned up in a matter of days. Unfortunately, the DS3 (T) loop is still required for this service.

If a full DS3 line is more bandwidth that you really need, it is also possible to get Fractional DS3, which gives you a portion of full DS3 bandwidth at a lower cost. Of course, DS3 is also available in multiples to increase bandwidth, similar to bonded T1 service.

DS3 service can be deployed for a wide verity of applications. The most common uses are DS3 point-to-point, DS3 internet, DS3 frame relay, DS3 voice and DS3 VPN. The pricing for these connections varies widely depending on the carrier, location of service and the application for which the connection is being used. Visit DS3 Bandwidth Solutions to obtain current „real time“ rate quotes for your location.

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Source by Michael Lemm

Architecture Of Ancient Greece


The traces of ancient Greek architecture can be traced back to the 8th century BC. Since the ancient Greek buildings were made up of clay, wood or mud-brick, no remains have been found of them barring a few ground plans. In fact, almost no sources or descriptions exist about the embryonic Greek buildings. However, most of our present day knowledge about Greek architecture comes from the late archaic period, also known as the Periclean age.

Temples
The temples of ancient Greece were the biggest and most beautiful. They also had a political purpose as they were often built to celebrate civic power and pride, or offer thanksgiving to the patron deity of a city for success in war. Other architectural forms used by the Greeks were the tholos or circular temple, of which the best example is the Tholos of Theodorus at Delphi dedicated to the worship of Athena Pronaia; the propylon or porch, forming the entrance to temple sanctuaries.

The most knowledge about ancient Greek architecture comes form late archaic period (550 – 500 BC), the Periclean age (450 – 430 BC), and the early to pure classical period (430 – 400 BC). Examples of Greek architecture can be drawn from Hellenistic and Roman periods and from written sources such as Vitruvius (1st century).

Although the ancient Greeks erected buildings of many types, the Greek temple best exemplifies the aims and methods of Greek architecture. The temples were quite different from the modern day church as the altar generally stood in front of the open sky, directly in front of the temple. The temples generally served as storage places and the inner rooms of the temples were mainly strongrooms.

In addition to temples, the Greeks also built a number of other kinds of structures. Their public spaces included monumental tombs; agoras, in ancient Greece, the public square or marketplace of a city.

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Source by Jeff Walker

Choosing a Good Accounting Software (stellar Accounting Software)


Have you ever wanted to buy good accounting software or have you experienced error prone software. Companies that handle large amount of accounts prefer good accounting software. Finding of good accounting software is a difficult task. The cost of maintaining manual accounts of the company can be eliminated by good accounting software. Are you looking for best account automated software? Your search ends here. With good accounting software you can increase the productivity of the company manifold.  

Accounting Software by stellar has been designed keeping in view the necessities of companies, financial institution, agencies or any other business institution. Accounting software is useful for small, medium and large scale business. With good accounting software you can do the inventory, accounts or any other financial transaction of the company very easily. Owing to very simple, easy to use, error free, outperforming capabilities, flexible in nature, software by Stellar has gained immense popularity in business world. The software with powerful features and capabilities maintain the complete transactions of the company and management of the company can access any real time information without any delay. Once you install accounting software, you do not need to look for any other software because it has abandoned capacity to handle any difficult accounting transactions. 

 Accounting software by stellar is an affordable solution to any difficult accounting problems. Most of the accounting software’s have something in common. But accounting software by stellar has an edge over others for many reasons. That’s why even reluctant people buying to any software have purchased our software. Our customers are enjoying the benefits of our best quality software. Accounting software provides incredible solutions to any accounting problem. The advent of software by stellar has forced the competitors to decrease their market prices and has led to too much benefits to its customers. This is possible because of constrained efforts done by software expert Team of Stellar. Accounting software by Stellar has outperformed their opponents.

 There are number of accounting software companies in the market, but no one has courage to challenge the quality, flexibility, performance of our software. It is very simple and users with little knowledge of computers can use it very easily. Those who have bad experience with any accounting software will find wonderful software here. Those who zeal to buy our software can submit their query to our website http://www.stac.in/enquiryform.htm Once you will buy, you will be free from any sort of tension for maintaining account manually. Accounting software by stellar is a blend of inventory, accounting or any other accounting problem to small, medium or large business organizations. With this invention, the days of manual accounting or any accounting problem are over. This software has distinct modules that are available at very cheaper rates. Even very small businessmen can afford to buy this software. This software is available in every technology. Ever since the complexity in business has increased the demand for accounting software has increased. Today, almost every financial institution or any other business house is looking for best accounting software. Accounting software is a friend in your business. Accounting software is a best accounting technique which is used by every business house in this world. So, always beware of buying any other accounting software. Don’t be mislead by false claims of their owners. Always choose accounting software by Stellar.

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Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg


Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

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Source by Sukhdeepak Singh

The Top 3 Reasons to Stay Away From Forex Robots


It seems like everybody in the forex trading world is absolutely fascinated with forex robots. People are either spending thousands of hours trying to create one or thousands of dollars buying one. After all, who would not want to make money forex trading, without having to do the actual work. But there are a few things wrong with forex robots:

1) The markets are just too complicated . The forex market is just not (for a lack of a better word) programmable. You can not insert a piece of software to trade for you on autopilot and expect to become rich overnight. Trading is a little more intricate than that. More traders need to start getting off of this „mechanical“ mindset.

2) Do not You Think There Would Be More Success Stories? It seems to me that if most of these forex robots worked, there would be a higher percentage of traders having success in the market. As it stands right now, 95% of forex traders are losing money. If there were traders who were using the same trading robots and using the same parameters for entering and exiting a trade, would not it stand to reason that more people would be successful? After all, there are no emotions involved, and everybody is trading off the same entries and exits.

3) You Can not Trust Your Broker . Let’s face it. We all need our broker, but I would not trust mine as far as I could throw them. When you use a trading robot, you are not in control of your own trades. This means that you have to be able to trust the broker to enter and exit trades according to your automated robot. That is what I like to call a giant leap of faith. In fact, I suggest you look at all the forex forums that are out there and see how many traders have demoed a given forex robot, and had a lot of success, but when they used that robot to trade for real money, all of a sudden they were losing pips. It’s funny how that works, does not it?

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Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg


Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

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Source by John Templeton