Find Out the Best Litecoin Brokers


Searching the best litecoin brokers that can help you through your trading can be a daunting task; however, with the help of the litecoin brokers reviews you know which the brokerage firms that you can trust are. Litecoin, a decentralized online currency, can be used to purchase internet services, such as website development or goods, etc. with ease.

Litecoin also provides merchants with a safe and easy way to accept money, as there are no fees when sending or receiving funds. It is like Bitcoin, another digital currency that is making a lot of news. Here users will also find that all payments are recorded via an online system, otherwise known as the blockchain.

Needless to say litecoin very much like Bitcoin enables the payment receiver to immediately verify the payment and the user, without having to research it all by hand. The best litecoin brokers can be extremely helpful for you if you are trading the digital currency and wish to make profits buying and selling in whatever amount.

As it appears crystal clear that whatever the traders or ordinary users need, litecoins can be a great way to make online purchases. For instance, the digital currency can help them protect their own finances by protecting them from inflation and other external influences that might affect the value. Thus, litecoin has emerged as a real valuable option for money.

Best Litecoin Brokers with Attractive Offers

As litecoins can be used worldwide, by anyone, these are also being used as trading assets by a lot of traders. However, as there are only a few brokerage firms that offer litecoin trading, it is important for traders that they find only the best litecoin brokers. Like using Bitcoin is easy, the traders also expect that the best litecoin brokerage firm also offers cheap brokerage charges.

The fees experienced by Litecoin users are significantly lower when compared to that of credit card companies and bank transfers; however, trading becomes expensive if done with the brokerage firm that has higher brokerage charges. Litecoin trading can become a costly affair if the brokerage charges are unaffordable.

Similarly, it is worth noting that there will only ever be 84 million litecoins, so you don’t need to worry about inflation that may affect the overall value of the currency the traders have. Needless to say many people make exchanges using litecoins, with millions of trades happening every day.

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Source by Andrew Jones

The Basics of Money


What is Money?

The answer to the question is simple. Money is anything widely used for paying debts owed by a person to someone else and also for receiving the payments of debts owing to a person from someone else. A country produces coins and banknotes, (accepted by everyone) for the payment of bills and for the receipt of money owing.

Money is what is known as a „medium of exchange“.

In the „old days“ people traded the goods and services they owned (and probably produced) for goods and services owned by others (probably produced by them). The scenario went something like this – „you give me two sacks of your potatoes and I will trade you ten of my fish“.

This method of trading was fine for a while. As society developed, business became more cumbersome and inefficient with this method of trade. Business dealings became stilted and slow and lagged behind the new pace of commerce. There had to be a better way. Some bright spark then came up with the idea of a common „medium of exchange“ easier to carry around and better to use.

Money was born.

It wasn’t that simple, because while all sorts of things were used as a medium of exchange, these were all basically called „money“ and it wasn’t until coins and paper notes were developed that money as we know it today became the standard accepted as a medium of exchange.

Forms of Money

There are various forms of money – cheques, IOU’s, credit cards, bank drafts or gold. Gold was the standard used in the past because of its scarcity and its qualities. Gold is resistant to corrosion or damage. These unique properties, as well as the scarcity of gold means that even today, wealthy people around the world would rather keep their wealth in gold holdings than in the currencies of countries which are subject to inflation.

In fact, all sorts of things have been used as money throughout the ages. Some include: beads, eggs, salt, pigs, leather, yarn, axes, ivory and jade. Today we have another form of money, which cannot be touched, and yet it as real as the tangible coins we are able to touch. This form of money is electronic money.

The Name „Money“

The word money comes from the Roman goddess – Moneta. Apparently coins were minted in her temples and issued to the world, as the Romans knew it at the time. The Latin word „Moneta“, (meaning mint or coins) came from the old English word „mynet“ (meaning coins or money) and from this came the English word „mint“.

Origins of Money

To understand the origins of money we have to go back to a time well before money came on the scene. Money did not suddenly appear – it was introduced gradually in response to the requirements of human needs. As civilization grew and expanded beyond local societies, the need to exchange the products provided by various groups became evident. The hunter needed to exchange with the farmer, the shepherd needed to exchange with the medicine man etc.

The medium of exchange that was necessary to enable the various groups to barter and swap their products was money. It was originally a physical substance like gold or silver. Sometimes it was a substance that was alive such as cattle, which was one of the oldest forms of money.

Today, although much of the money used by individuals in their everyday life is still in the form of notes and coins, its quantity is relatively small compared to the intangible types of money existing as entries in bank records.

Today money exists in the form of digital cash and such things as coins and bank notes will soon become obsolete. When this happens, the change in the nature of money will have a significant effect on our society.

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Source by Peter Viliamu

The Ripple Effects of After-Death-Communication with Your Loved Ones


We all have lost someone near and dear to our heart at some point in our life, whether to natural causes, illnesses, or tragedy.  No matter the cause of death, it hurts each of us so deeply and affects us in different ways.  I have spent the last twenty-three years working through and dealing with my sister’s death, and have been ever so blessed to receive her help from the other side.

As you face and move through the grieving process, have faith and trust that your loved one on the other side is okay.  Understand that our loved ones want to be remembered and to remain close to us forever.  They want to sprinkle a bit of heaven upon us, as they know and understand the challenges of everyday life here on earth.  I have had a relationship with my deceased sister for the last twenty-three years.  I can honestly say, as odd as this may sound, that I could not live (here) without her (over there).  The powerful ways in which she comforts me, inspires me, supports me, and guides me is remarkable.  Be open to the possibility of receiving miraculous blessings from those you love on the other side.  When you do, you will experience the ripple effects of your connection with your deceased loved one for the rest of your life!

Consider these ripple effects:

· From my sister’s and my heavenly connection, I have more faith.

· With more faith, I believe in myself at a deeper level.

· With profound belief, my self-confidence expands.

· With increased confidence, it’s easier to take risks and leaps of faith.

· Through taking risks and leaps of faith, I experience more, achieve more, and receive more glorious gifts and blessings.

· Achieving and receiving lifts my spirit and makes me more positive.

· Being more positive makes me desire more good, period.

· Desiring more good is a driving force to keep the faith and continue my two-way communication.

· Continuing this communication makes me feel alive, connected, and supported — the place where all peace resides.

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Source by Deborah Heneghan

How To Earn A Tax-Free Income From Forex Trading AND Claim All Your Expenses From The UK Tax Authorities


WARNING: This article might be boring!

This article is aimed at UK Foreign Exchange traders who want to 1) know how to minimize their tax liabilities from forex trading, and/or 2) to know how to claim back from the UK tax authorities all the expenses incurred in their trading activities – legally.

Before I go on, I must stress that this is general UK tax information and must not be construed as professional tax advice. You should consult your personal accountant or tax consultant who can advise you personally having taking into account all your own particular circumstances. This information is given in good faith and is relevant under existing UK tax legislation.

As many UK traders know, UK income tax is normally payable on trading profits made from the foreign exchange market after relevant deduction of trading losses and expenses and any applicable personal allowances. Expenses allowable must be wholly and exclusively incurred as part of your trading activities and will include things like allowances for your trading screens and computers, IT maintenance, legal costs, telephone and broadband connection costs, FT, The Economist and other relevant subscriptions and periodicals, etc.

However, currently under UK tax law any trading gains made from the foreign exchange markets through UK spread-betting activities are tax-free. What is more, this income does not even have to be declared to the tax authorities, just like your winnings from betting on the horses at your local Bookmaker. The unfortunate thing about spread-betting is that forex trading losses (and it’s a fact that the vast majority of spread-betters are losers!) are not deductible from tax. The double-whammy of spread-betting is that expenses incurred as a result of spread-bet trading activities are not usually deductible either.

So how does one take advantage of these current rules?

The simple answer is to trade using both direct forex trading and spread-bet trading! The cheeky but legal solution is to ensure that all personal tax allowances and associated expenses of forex trading are covered by net profits made using direct forex market trading activities so that the net tax liability is very low, or even zero. Your accountant will probably advise that not 100% of expenses would be allowable since not all expenses have been incurred as part of direct forex trading activities, so bear this in mind. Hopefully most of your mega forex gains made with the Lindencourt FX System will be made through your spread-betting account and will therefore be completely tax-free.

So you can have your cake and eat it!

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Source by Andrew Lindencourt

What's the Difference Between Permanent and Whole Life Insurance


Whole life insurance is a type of permanent insurance, and both of these have terms lasting until the end of the insured’s life, as opposed to term life insurance, which, as the name suggests, only covers the life of the insured for a specified term . Put simply, permanent life insurance always pays out to the beneficiary, because the end of its term is the death of the insured; term life insurance only pays out if the insured dies during the allotted time period. The former is substantially-sometimes tenfold-more expensive than the latter, but term life insurance renewal is often costly, since at the end of the term the insured person is older and therefore represents a higher risk. This is especially true of life insurance for seniors, as one might imagine, since their chances of payout are higher.

Whole life insurance, also known as cash surrender life insurance, is considered a solid investment. Given consistent upkeep, it accumulates value on a tax-deferred basis, just as an education or retirement fund does. With whole life insurance, the insured may use the policy as collateral, borrow against it or even borrow from it-again, just as with a bank account. If the insured borrows from it, say to build a dream retirement home, the end cash payout obviously will be lower for the named beneficiary / ies, unless the borrowed amount is repaid. And, if the insured is unable to continue paying into the policy, then just like a bank account, it might still have a payout to beneficiaries, depending on when the payout is. The insurance company providing whole life insurance also folds its dividends directly into the policy (provided the company is profitable), providing a secondary increase in value over time.

Another type of permanent insurance is variable life insurance. Here, the life insurance policy is more of a stock portfolio than a savings account, and its value varies with the value of the investments chosen to support it. At the end of the insured’s life, the portfolio is paid out to the beneficiary / ies; depending on the risk level of the chosen investments, the benefit may either erode or grow over time.

With universal life insurance, the insured pays a base initial amount, and then makes payments within a range set by the insurance provider. This type of policy is usually less costly, but it is important to understand that the range of minimum and maximum payments may change over time, depending on the health of the provider, its investments or other terms. Therefore, the account requires more attention than other forms of permanent insurance.

Finally, variable universal life (VUL) insurance is another tax-free account in which terms and payments can vary as needed. In it, flexible premiums may be invested in a variety of areas and accounts, coverage may be increased or decreased, and investments may be transferred between accounts without tax ramifications. Because the policyholder retains more of the risk than the insurance provider, VUL policies often have less costly upkeep fees than many other types of policies. On the other hand, it is also a combination of all of the flexibility possible within the permanent life insurance category.

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Source by Ryan Patterson

A Survey on Intrusion Detection Systems in Manets


A survey on Intrusion Detection Systems in MANETs

 Shahid Shehzad Bajwa

 Pakistan Air Force-Karachi Institute of Economics and Technology

 shahidshehzad_321@hotmail.com

Abstract

 Ensuring security in Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) is very crucial. In recent years a surge of research and expansion for Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) has demonstrated its great potential for establishing communication over a large number of application scenarios.  Adhoc Network security is different from traditional network security. In this paper we have surveyed the use of Intrusion Detection System in the Adhoc Networks and analyzed their fruitfulness.

Introduction
An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a defense system, which detects malicious activities in a network. One feature of intrusion detection systems is their ability to detect or provide a view of malicious activities and issues by notifying or block a assumed connection. IDS tools are capable of distinguishing between attacks coming from own employees or customers and attacks posed by hackers. An intrusion Detection Systems has its core element a sensor (an analysis engine) that is responsible for detecting intrusions. It has decision making mechanisms is called sensor that receive raw data from knowledge base, system log and audit trail sources. The role of sensor is to filter information and discard any irrelevant data obtained from the event set associated with the protected system. Intrusion detection systems can be arranged as centralized or distributed. A distributed IDS consists of multiple Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) over a large network, which communicate with each other. This survey report discusses the security issues at cluster based security management. In node level security management each node is responsible for securing itself. MANET routing protocols can be divided into proactive and imprudent categories. Both proactive and reactive protocols can suffer from control packet floods caused by malicious nodes.

 What is MANET and how MANETs are different from other networks?

Mobile Ah-hoc Networks (MANETs) are networks that are made of mobile and power controlled nodes infrastructure less self organizing, all the nodes share the same functions with respect to the network operation, (i.e. there is no node that is in charge for authentication or security services). It is vulnerable to security attacks due to its features of open medium, dynamic changing topology, cooperative algorithms, lack of centralized monitoring, management point, and lack of a clear line of defense. 

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) is slightly more delicate. It exploits the nodes redundancy of nodes and the self-organizing network prototype to overcome some problems that are inherent to wireless networks (tradeoff between distance and transfer rates) or to networks in general (congestion, configuration and installation costs). Applying the above definition of WMN, you may find that both MANETs and WMN are „self-organizing“, but you could also argue that MANETs can be seen as a subset of WMN. The most interesting application of WMN, tough is probably the use of wireless nodes (either mobile or fixed) to convey traffic from mobile users that have a wireless device to the wired internet. 

 A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively scrutinize physical or environmental circumstances, such as high temperature, echo, shuddering, pressure, motion or pollutants, at different locations.  They were originally motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance. However, wireless sensor networks are now used in many civilian application areas, including environment and locale monitoring, healthcare applications, home computerization, and traffic management.

 MANETs Security Approaches

 There are mainly two approaches to securing a MANET: proactive and reactive. The proactive approach attempts to prevent security threats in the first place, typically through various cryptographic techniques. The reactive approach seeks to detect threats a posteriori and react accordingly. Both approaches have own merits and is suitable for addressing different issues in MANET. For example, most secure routing protocols adopt the proactive approach in order to secure routing messages exchanged between mobile nodes, while the reactive approach is widely used to protect packet forwarding operations. Due to the absence of a clear line of defense, a complete security solution for MANETs should integrate both proactive and reactive approaches, and encompass all three components: prevention, detection, and reaction. The prevention component deters the attacker by significantly increasing the difficulty of penetrating the system. Ad hoc wireless internet extends the service of the internet to the end users over an ad hoc wireless network; some of the applications of the ad hoc internet ate wireless mesh networks. 

In Sensor networks security manage by a centralized control called base stations. A base station is typically a gateway to another network, a powerful data processing or storage center, or an access point for human interface. They can be used as a nexus to disseminate control information into the network or extract data from it. The sensor nodes establish a routing forest, with a base station at the root of every tree. Base stations are many orders of magnitude more powerful than sensor nodes. Typically, base stations have enough battery power to surpass the lifetime of all sensor nodes, sufficient memory to store cryptographic keys, stronger processors, and means for communicating with outside networks. 

No matter how carefully the prevention mechanisms are designed a completely intrusion-free system is infeasible. In MANETs, detecting and reacting components that discover the irregular intrusions and take reactions to avoid persistent adverse effects are indispensable for the security solutions are called Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). They explore issues associated with deviations from normal system or user behavior which are concerned with the detection of hostile actions. 

Classification of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS)

 To classify the intrusion detection systems there is a family of tools that use information derived from a single host based IDS (HIDS) and those IDSs that exploit information obtained from a whole segment of a local network  (network based IDS). The HIDS reside on a particular computer and provide protection for a specific system. They are not only equipped with system monitoring facilities but also include other modules of a typical IDS. Two primary types of HIDS can be distinguished: 

a.    Real Secure Agent, and Port Sentry System monitors incoming connection attempts. These examine host-based incoming and outgoing network connections. These are particularly related to the unauthorized connection attempts to TCP or UDP ports and can also detect incoming port scans.

b.    Systems which examine network traffic (packets) that attempts to access the host. These systems protect the host by intercepting suspicious packets and looking for aberrant payloads. 

c.    Login Activity Monitoring Systems monitors the networking layer of their protected host (Host Sentry). Their role is to monitor log-in and log-out attempts, looking for unusual activity on a system occurring at unexpected times, particular network locations or detecting multiple login attempts. The network-based type of IDS (NIDS) produces data about local network usage. The NIDS reassemble and analyze all network packets that reach the network interface card operating in promiscuous mode.

 Role of Intrusion Detection Systems in MANET Security

 In Mobile ad hoc network security attacks on routing information [1], exhausting nodes resources, maliciously manipulating data traffic is caused by lack of network infrastructure. AIS (Artificial Immune System) architecture protects and reacts against known and unknown dys-functions and attacks in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network. It is designed as two systems, primary IDS and secondary IDS. These components communicate across the network. The primary IDS are centralized and responsible the packager component was originally missing from selection. In order to adapt to new attacks, a process through which components of successful detectors are recombined using the evolutionary process to make new detectors. The secondary IDS are distributed and are responsible for data gathering, data reduction, detection, and response. It also forwards successful detections to the primary IDS. The architecture of AISANIDS contains two major components.  The secondary IDS consist of four components, the sensors, the packager, the detector, and the response. The primary IDS consist of only an analysis component. The sensors collect audit information and convert it to a common event format. The packager performs data reduction by grouping the events into sessions. The analysis component uses these sessions to create detectors. The detector component matches current sessions to its detectors. Finally, the response component automatically responds to attacks. Ideally, once the secondary IDS had a set of detectors, it could continue to function even if the primary IDS failed. Further recommend combining both detection methods to maximize the effectiveness of IDS. 

Real time intrusion in service oriented and user centric intrusion detection system [2] decreases ubiquitous computing for the user short term and long term behavior. SUIDS (Service-oriented and User-centric Intrusion Detection System) with Chi-Square Statistic Test increases ubiquitous computing for the user short term and long term behavior. In this way, the observation reflects the ‘most recent past‘ characteristics of variables in an online fashion. Along with a chi-square statistic test, SUIDS (Service-oriented and User-centric Intrusion Detection System) can measure not only the mean and variance of variables, but also their probability attributions and occurrence patterns. It handles the heterogeneity issue of pervasive network by classifying network nodes into three major categories (head nodes, service nodes, and user nodes) and integrating intrusion detection with service specific knowledge. Security-related factors and subtle scenarios will be considered and tested regarding the system detection effectiveness. A resource-efficient detection algorithm will be investigated to further improve the performance of SUIDS. 

Poor connectivity and limited bandwidth makes network vulnerable to security attacks at node level communication in mobile ad hoc networks.  Mobile Agent Based Intrusion Detection System (MABIDS) [3] runs on each node intrusion detection  system  locally  and  equally  cooperates  with other intrusion detection systems  running  on  other nodes.  It derived from a MANET requirement analysis. The  mobility  and  autonomy  associated with  MAs  to  provide  an  efficient  and  flexible  solution  to  poor  connectivity  and  limited  bandwidth  in  MANET  context. In architecture of intrusion  detection  is  based  on  collection  and analysis  of  system  and  network  audit  data.  Upon detection, intrusions report to security management. Architecture  of  MABIDS contains the System  Administrator (SA) is in charge of harmonizing all the  activities among the modules,  such  as  Sensor   management (SM), Event Manager  (EM),  Response  Agent (RA), IDS Agents Framework, and PMADE. The sensor management is composed of Data classifier and Data formatting.  Data  classifier  collects  raw  data  from  system  audit  and  local  route.  The data that comes out of the Data classifier divided into three groups:  system-level data, user-level data and packet- level data.  Data  formatting  processes  the  group-data  with  the  data  formats  rules  of  local  IDS  and  outputs  event  data. Communication overhead can more reduce by dividing load into the IDS cluster nodes. 

Lack of central authority in self organized mobile ad hoc network increases security threats.  Self-organizing mechanism [4] manages security on node-level decreases security threats from mobile ad hoc networks attackers.  It based on the assumptions where individual nodes are themselves responsible for their own security level. Self-organized mobile ad hoc network a node that is responsible for its own security should carry out. The management of security becomes easier if suitable metrics can be developed to offer evidence of the security level or performance of the network. Intrusion detection and prevention (IDS/IPS) techniques can be applied for this purpose. A security monitoring system continuously estimating the actual security level can be attached to the individual nodes of a self-organized mobile ad hoc network. Exploring component metric area and identify dependencies between them.

Due to lack of network central infrastructure and central authority for authentication malicious node attacks for authentication and authorization. It protects and reacts against known and unknown dys-functions or attacks in a mobile ad hoc networks [5]. It was designed as two systems, primary IDS and secondary IDS. These components communicate across the network. The primary IDS is centralized the packager components was originally missing from selection. The secondary IDS is responsible for data gathering, data reduction, detection and response. It also forward successful detection to primary IDS.  The immune based system may miss some obvious attacks and raise alters when exposed to rare but permissible activities. 

Security attacks to gain unauthorized accesses and misuse of critical data are catastrophic for Mobile ad hoc networks. Hybrid intrusion detection and visualization method [6] secure the network from attackers to gain unauthorized accesses and misuse of critical data. Intelligent hybrid intrusion detection and visualization system introduces a two-stage intrusion detection technique. Host system calls are monitored as audit data source. Current research is conducted on a standalone host only. The first stage is the misuse detection stage that employs the signature-based detection method. A database of known detection behaviors has been developed and updated over the time. The system compares system audit data with intrusion behavior database in real time. If any intrusion is detected, the autonomous agents will start to intervene and take precautions according to the event handling mechanisms. After the signature detection stage, a graph of system call information should be generated. The second stage is the anomaly detection stage. This stage can overcome the shortcoming of the first stage and is able to detect novel attacks. It can provide additional detection such as misuse of confidential data by internal users. An anomaly-based IDS achieves this by identifying program behaviors that deviate from the known normal behavior. It monitors a program by observing event traces and comparing those traces to some expected behavior. Visualization system needs to give security officers an intuitive representation of such information as normal range of system calls. 

Due to limitations of detecting misuse and anomaly attacks in MANET makes network vulnerable from attackers. Hybrid system combines the misuse detection and anomaly detection components for applying random forests algorithm in MANET [7]. In proposed technique there are two different methods for intrusion detection misuse detection and anomaly detection. In misuse detection determines intrusions by patterns or signatures which can represent attacks. Misuse based systems can detect known attacks like virus detection systems, but they cannot detect unknown attacks. Misuse detection usually has higher detection rate and lower false positive rate than anomaly detection.  Anomaly detection technique identifies the observed activities that deviate significantly from the normal usage as intrusions.  Anomaly detection can detect unknown intrusions, which cannot be addressed by misuse detection. Finally the proposed algorithm achieves high detection rate with low false positive rate, and can detect novel intrusions. However, some intrusions that are very similar with each other cannot be detected by the anomaly detection. Due to the limitations of proposed algorithm another clustering algorithm could be investigated in the future. 

Wormhole attacks break security boundaries for detecting information in wireless ad hoc networks. A model novel end-to-end wormhole Detection system [8] detects intrusion attacks on wireless ad-hoc networks because of its features of lack of centralized administration, limited resources, dynamically changed network topology, and wireless communication. Message bombing, black-hole attack, and wormhole attack, rushing attack are from major attacks in wireless ad hoc networks. Among wireless ad hoc network intrusion detection techniques have been studied. They can be classified into three categories: signature based intrusion detection , anomaly based intrusion detection, and specification based intrusion detection. Proposed method, called end method, in detecting wormhole attack. A wormhole is a dedicated connection between two endpoints which are normally multi-hops away. The adversary either connects the two endpoints by a wired link or installs two radio transceivers at the two locations. Then the attacker sends and re-transmits every packet received at one end of the wormhole at the other end. In this way, the wormhole disrupts the network routing by generating shorter routes in the network.  Further improvements on same work are ongoing. 

Security attacks based on the model learned only from normal network behaviors without the requirements of pre-labeled attack data generates congestion in Mobile ad hoc networks. An agent-based cooperative anomaly detection scheme [9] prevent from security attacks based on the model learned only from normal network behaviors without the requirements of pre-labeled attack data.  The anomaly detection is performed in a cooperative way involving the participation of multiple mobile nodes. Unlike traditional signature-based misuse detection approaches, the proposed scheme detects various types of intrusions/attacks based on the model learned only from normal network behaviors. Without the requirements of pre-labeled attack data, the approach eliminates the time-consuming labeling process and the impacts of imbalanced dataset. The proposed agent-based cooperative anomaly detection approach builds on cluster-type architecture. It is energy efficient by implementing the function of intrusion detection in a cooperative fashion for each cluster. 

Malicious intruders infiltrating poison the collaborative detectors with false alarms, disrupting the intrusion detection functionality and placing the whole system at risk increases security attacks on mobile ad hoc networks. A P2P-based overlay detection method [10] detects malicious intruders infiltrating poison the collaborative detectors with false alarms, disrupting the intrusion detection functionality and placing the whole system at risk increases security attacks on mobile ad hoc networks. The traditional intrusion detection systems (IDS) are limited and inferior in comparison to the attackers‘ capabilities. Typically, traditional IDSs work in isolation, only seeing relatively small subsections of the Internet, and thus they are unable of deriving significant trends in the whole network. This is especially true for new and emerging attacks, where being able to observe a large amount of deviant behavior would increase the detection and protection capabilities. Efficiency and scalability are some of the critical issues that like to address in our future work. Needs plan to adopt efficient communication models and experiment with different message filtering and peer grouping strategies. 

Security attacks on certification services to gain authentication causes the congestion in MNET. Secure and effective distributed certification service method using the Secret Sharing scheme and the Threshold Digital Signature scheme [11] secures certification services in the MANET. It is an effective authentication scheme to solve the problem that the whole network security would be damaged by the intrusion of one node and to reduce the risk of the exposure of the private keys. Using cryptographic schemes, such as digital signatures to protect routing information and data traffic, usually requires a key management service. A common way for doing this is adopting a public key infrastructure, which in turn requires a trusted entity, Certification Authority (CA), to the network of key management. Establishing a key management service with a single CA is problematic in MANET. If this single CA is unavailable, nodes cannot receive the current public keys of the other nodes, which mean it cannot establish a secure connection. Furthermore, if the CA is compromised and leaks its private key to an adversary, the adversary can then sign any erroneous certificate using this private key to impersonate any node or revoke any certificate. Certification scheme is based on Polynomial secret sharing and Threshold digital signature. Each mobile node forming MANET has its own identifier such as the MAC address. For further improvement the delay time related to renewing the certificate must be reduced. 

Security attacks decreases highly available communication processes during detecting faults and intrusion in mobile ad hoc networks. LITON (Lightweight Intrusion-Tolerant Overlay Network) architecture [12] aims at providing highly available communication in spite of faults and intrusions in the mobile ad hoc network. It is the first overlay network that is able to tolerate intrusions that shows how routing schemes originally developed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can be used in overlay networks, and introducing a smart route caching strategy that allows for quick recovery when faults are detected. In LITON Lightweight Intrusion-Tolerant Overlay Network every overlay node is an Internet host residing in an autonomous system (AS). Autonomous systems may be connected via public or private (not globally advertised) links. Overlay node placement is arbitrary; however, since LITON is explicitly designed to overcome limitations of Internet inter-domain routing, spreading nodes across different ASs may significantly improve network availability. 

Conclusion 

No doubt that the IDS are here to stay, although future systems will undoubtedly take a different form than our modern day versions. The mathematical and AI (artificial intelligence) concepts required for success are already being developed, tested and improved upon. In this survey paper we have discussed various Intrusion-Detection-Systems for mobile ad hoc networks based on different protocols to detect the intruders and resolve the security attacks. Many intrusion detection systems are under implementation processes and it is also possible that IDS will merge the independent network components and tools which exist today, into a complete and cooperative system, committed to keeping networks stable.

Future Work

 Black hole attacks will be investigated and new model for grouped Black hole attacks will be proposed soon. Black hole attacks gain the information from non-updated routing tables and represent them self as shortest path. After receiving data packets they drop it.

References

 [1]. A. Karygiannis, E. Antonakakis, A. Apostolopoulos, „Detecting Critical Nodes for MANET Intrusion Detection Systems,“ Second International Workshop on Security, Privacy and Trust in Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (SecPerU’06), pp. 7-15, June 2006. 

 [2]. Bo Zhou, Qi Shi, Madjid Merabti, „Intrusion Detection in Pervasive Networks Based on a Chi-Square Statistic Test,“ 30th Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC’06), pp. 203-208, September 2006. 

[3]. Upinder Kaur, R.B. Patel, „Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks: A Mobile Agent Approach,“ 9th International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT’06, pp. 77-80, December 2006. 

[4]. Reijo Savola, Ilkka Uusitalo, „Towards Node-Level Security Management in Self-Organizing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,“ Advanced International Conference on Telecommunications and International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Services (AICT-ICIW’06), pp. 36, February 2006. 

[5]. Hongxia Xie, Zhengyun Hui, „An Intrusion Detection Architecture for Ad Hoc Network Based on Artificial Immune System,“ Seventh International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies (PDCAT’06), pp. 1-4, December 2006. 

[6]. Jiong Zhang, Mohammad Zulkernine, “ A Hybrid Network Intrusion Detection Technique Using Random Forests,“ First International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES’06), pp. 262-269, April 2006. 

[7] Jiong Zhang and Mohammad Zulkernine „A Hybrid Network Intrusion Detection Technique Using Random Forests,“ Approach,“ International Conference on Information Technology December 2006. 

[8]. Xia Wang, „Intrusion Detection Techniques in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,“ 30th Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference, pp. 347-349 (COMPSAC’06), September 2006.

[9]. Hongmei Deng, Roger Xu, Jason Li, Frank Zhang, Renato Levy, Wenke Lee, “ Agent-Based Cooperative Anomaly Detection for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,“ 12th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems – Volume 1 (ICPADS’06),  pp. 613-620, July 2006.

[10]. Claudiu Duma, Martin Karresand, Nahid Shahmehri, Germano Caronni, „A Trust-Aware, P2P-Based Overlay for Intrusion Detection, „17th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA’06),   pp. 692-697, September 2006. 

[11]. Kiho Shin, Yoonho Kim, Yanggon Kim, “ An Effective Authentication Scheme in Mobile Ad Hoc Network,“ Seventh ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking, and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD’06),  pp. 249-252, June 2006. 

[12]. Rafael R. Obelheiro, Joni da Silva Fraga, „A Lightweight Intrusion-Tolerant Overlay Network,“ Ninth IEEE International Symposium on Object and Component-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC’06), pp. 496-503, April 2006.

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Handling and Storing Your Bullion Coin


Bullion coins are some of the most beautiful objects to collect. Since all bullion coins are minted from precious metals that are easily susceptible to tarnish or markings from mishandling or exposure to the environment, proper storing and handling of bullion coins are important to preserve their beauty and collectible (some say resale) value. We can even went as far as to surmise that collecting bullion coins requires skills, knowledge and investment far more advanced than normal coin collecting as proper know how in acquisition, storage method and handling  is essential to preserve the value of your coin portfolio. Because bullion coins are generally high priced, a single tarnish, scratch mark or even thumb print could devalue the coin very substantially, in the case of Proofs or Brilliant Uncirculated(BU) coins, to less than half of its original value.

The first and foremost rule in handling bullion coins is to handle them as less often as possible, better yet, never at all. Gold bullion coins can easily show dent marks or scratch even from the slightest „accidents“ as gold are very soft and malleable metal, this is more prevalent with coins that have exceptionally high purity like the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf (.9999 fineness). Silver on the other hand is notorious for being easily tarnished when exposed to even minute amounts of moisture in air or even human skin. Therefore if you must handle your coin, there is a few guidelines that should be taken into consideration:

1. Hold your coin by its edges, never touch the surface of the coin with your bare fingers as the acidity of human skin would result in color change or wear marks that would tarnish the surface of the coin. Preferably, wear a soft cotton glove when handling bullion coins.

2. Be very careful not to drop, bump or rub your coin against hard surfaces as this might easily result in dents or scratch marks, place foam or soft pads on the table when you are examining the coin to prevent the coin from scratches, ensure that the environment that the coin comes into contact with is dry, clean and free of contaminants.

3. Never breath onto the coin surface, the moisture from human breaths can cause discoloration which would be hard to remove if ever possible at all.

There are many solution offered in the market in storing and displaying your coin collection, in fact nowadays many fresh-out-of-the-mint bullion coins comes in plastic containers that does an excellent job in protecting your investment.

1. For display and short term storage purposes for lower value coins,  coin albums and flips provide adequate protection and effective display for large selection of coin, however since albums and flips are not fully air tight, the coins might suffer discoloration from air moisture and contaminant after long periods of time. Therefore this method cannot be applied for the more valuable coins of your collection. One should also take note that the coin albums and flips should not be made of PVC as PVC decompose when reacting the heat and light , the resulting chemical reaction releases hydrochloric acid which will slowly render your coins worthless!!!

2. The most common and economical solution is to use 2×2 cardboard containers lined with Mylar plastics, the coin can be placed on the Mylar and the container can be fold over to enclose the coin and snapped shut. This provide a high level of protection at an affordable price for the majority of your coin collection.

3. For the most valuable coins in your collection, a coin slab provides maximum protection against the elements albeit at a steeper investment, they are made from hermetically sealed hard plastic holders in which individual coins are encased.

Practicing proper care in handling and storing bullion coins is very similar to learning how to protect your financial investment, which in the long run can insure you against disappointment and protection from serious financial losses due to deterioration of your coin collection, therefore making your coin collecting experience much more rewarding.

Visit our website and online store at http://www.buybullions.co.uk for more information.

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The Importance of Learning Spanish Grammar


It is important to learn proper Spanish grammar when you learn to speak and write the language. However, knowing grammar by itself will not make you a fluent speaker. Most courses in the language integrate the grammar with other aspects, such as the vocabulary and the proper pronunciation. One of the things you will realize about the grammar is that all nouns have a definite or indefinite article in front of them. In English you would simply say girl or boy. This is not so in Spanish. Girl is a chica?and boy is l chico? You cannot just say hica?or hico? All nouns are either masculine or feminine and there is no neuter gender as there is in English.

Just as there are rules for making nouns plural in English, there are also rules of grammar for this in Spanish. These are:

– If a noun ends in a vowel, add ?to make it plural. You must also make the definite or indefinite article plural as well. El becomes los and la becomes les.

– If a noun ends in a consonant, adds?to make the word plural.

– If a noun ends in on, you adds?but you drop the accent mark on the letter ?

– If a noun ends with the letter ? you change the ?to ?and adds?

There are only three categories of verbs in Spanish ?those ending in and To conjugate a verb from its infinitive form, you still use the same pronouns as you do in English. There are rules for conjugating each category of verb according to the subject pronoun, which are important for you to learn. While all verbs end in ?when you want to use the pronoun ? they differ when you use the singular form of ou? which is sted?in Spanish. In order to conjugate the verbs with this pronoun, the rule is to add ?when you are using an ?verb and to use ?when you use an or verb.

Adjectives follow the noun they describe, rather than the English placement of in front of the noun. The form of the adjectives also changes depending on whether the word being described is masculine or feminine and whether it is singular or plural. Most adjectives end with the letter ?and have four forms ?masculine singular, masculine plural, feminine singular and feminine plural. There are adjectives that do end in ?and to make them plural you add the letter ? If the adjective ends with a consonant, you adds?to form the plural.

These are just the basics of what is involved in learning grammar when you learn Spanish. Because of the gender it is important to know how to speak and write the language properly so that you won inadvertently insult the person to whom you are speaking or writing. When you are taking a course, your instructor will gladly assist you in knowing when and where to use the words properly.

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Spying Cell Phones and IMEI Codes: The End Of Privacy – Protect Yourself


If someone has access to your cell phone and IMEI code, for just a few minutes, your life can become an open book! Some spy software is so sophisticated that it records conversations in the vicinity of the phone, even when you are not using it. Text messages that have been erased are easy to get at with inexpensive spy technology. Read on to learn a way to protect yourself from this invasion of privacy and what you should do if you think you are being spied on through your cell phone.

To protect yourself you must understand the basics of this technology and how it works. The spy needs two things: the IMEI code for your phone and software to connect with that code. IMEI stands for International Mobile Equipment Identity and is a number unique to each mobile device. It is found in the battery compartment of each phone and is 15 digits long. There are three places the spy can get the IMEI number:

  1. – From the phone contract. It was on my iPhone 4 contract.
  2. – From the battery case. It was in my iPhone 4 battery compartment.
  3. – By simply dialing #06# on the phone. This worked on my iPhone 4.

Spy cell phone software is inexpensive and available on hundreds of Internet sites. It is easy to install and can be downloaded directly from the Internet to your phone in seconds. The combination of software installed on your phone and the IMEI number make you a sitting duck for any kind of surveillance activity. The spy can now monitor your activities from a home computer or a smart phone. If you have something to hide – beware!

Is the use of this software legal? Yes, if you own the phone. Websites selling these products always have a disclaimer stating that they will not be responsible for illegal uses of the phone while at the same time promoting the software activities that do not appear to be legal. Because the software is undetectable spies are unlikely to be prosecuted.

If you suspect someone may be spying on your cell phone activities, you need to take your phone to your provider and have them clear the memory and restore it to the factory settings. Then guard your phone like it is a credit card that can be used without a password. In other words – don’t share it, even for a minute, with anyone you don’t know and trust.

There are many legitimate uses for the IMEI number and for the spying software and it is unlikely that either will go away. The IMEI number functions like a serial number making it easy to register and ban the resale of stolen phones. Spy software can add provide some security to children and teens while allowing more freedom. Spy software can also be used to find stolen and lost cell phones. As a concerned parent, and a person who sometimes loses his phone, I decided to install spy software on all the family phones.

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Nexus S first impressions


DesignThe Nexus S’s candy-bar design is fairly standard–it resembles many of its Galaxy S siblings–but it shows a few unique elements and it’s worlds apart from the Nexus One. It’s larger and lighter than its ancestor, and it sports an all-black plastic skin with a very faint design on the rear face. We admit, we’re a bit divided LCD Monitor on the appearance. It’s shiny and pretty, but the Nexus S feels too fragile in the hand. Remember that the Nexus One had some metal parts, which gave it a sturdy feel. We’re not saying the Nexus S feels cheap, but we’d be wary of dropping it on a hard surface. Also, the plastic surface and the display attract fingerprints like crazy.Below the display sit the four Android touch controls (menu, search, back, and home).

Unlike with the Nexus One, you don’t get a navigation trackball; we missed that trackball just a bit. Fortunately, the camera on the rear side is almost flush with the back of the phone–other Android handsets have a protruding lens–and it sits next to the bright flash. The second camera lens is on the front side just above the bright display. Other exterior features consist of a thin volume rocker on the left spine and a power control on the right spine. The 3.5mm headset jack and Micro-USB port sit on the phone’s bottom end. Though it’s not a huge deal, we’d prefer those ports to be up top.Samsung is highlighting the Nexus S‘ „contour“ design in its promotional materials. To you that means that the front of the device, display included, is slightly concave. The idea is to make it more comfortable to hold the phone against the side of your head. We’re not so impressed, though.

The curve is so slight that we didn’t notice any difference. We may feel differently after days of use, but the curve seems like a gimmick so far.InterfaceLike its predecessor, the Nexus S offers a straight Google experience uncluttered LCD Monitors by a manufacturer’s custom interface or a set of carrier-installed apps. Make no mistake that this is a phone for users who want the Android OS served up straight and simple. Indeed, we’ve always been fans of „letting Android be Android,“ so we’re not going to fault Sammy and Google for going this route. Even with Gingerbread, seasoned Android users will find few new elements. The Super AMOLED display is a little sharper than on the Nexus One, though not too dissimilar from the Galaxy S series. A few of the onscreen icons look different, but the main menu has the „crawl“ design where icons disappear into the background.

Five home screens are available for customization.GingerbreadWe’re still exploring the full details of the new OS, though we did try the new copy and paste. When using a long press to select words in paragraph, you’re now given an option to select just the word you’re touching rather than the whole block of text. Then, you’ll see new arrows for grabbing just the words you want. It may sound like a small change, but it makes a huge improvement in usability. The virtual keyboard also has some small-but-welcome tweaks.FeaturesWe’ll need time to check out the phone’s features, but we can offer a list of the Nexus S‘ offerings as a refresher. When taken as a whole, you’ll see many of the features available in the Nexus One, though the Nexus S adds a near field communications (NFC) chip, the aforementioned Touch Screen second camera, a gyroscope for gaming, and a 1Ghz Hummingbird processor (the Nexus One had a 1Ghz Snapdragon processor). That’s not a bad lot, but we were hoping for more from such a showcase device. And we’re not happy about the lack of a microSD card slot, HDMI output, and support for T-Mobile’s HSPA+ network.

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